copyright © allyn & bacon 2008 communication (miller chapter 9)

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  • Slide 1
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Communication (Miller Chapter 9)
  • Slide 2
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 The BIG Questions How do humans communicate? What are the links between communication, cultural diversity, and inequality? How does language change?
  • Slide 3
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Communication Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages Most humans are in almost constant communication! With other people, with supernatural beings, or with pets
  • Slide 4
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 How Do Humans Communicate? Language and verbal communication Language is a systematic set of symbols and signs with learned and shared meanings Probably developed in humans about 100,000 years ago when had both the anatomical and mental capacity to do so Nonverbal language and embodied communication Communicating with media and technology
  • Slide 5
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Key Characteristics of Human Language Human language has productivity The ability to create an infinite range of understandable expressions from a finite set of rules Human language emphasizes the feature of displacement The ability to refer to events and issues beyond the immediate present Humans have the physiological capacity for speech
  • Slide 6
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Properties of Human Verbal Language Has distinctive sounds (or phonemes) Meaningful sounds Has a vocabulary (or lexicon) Meaningful words Focal vocabularies clusters of words that refer to important features of a particular culture Has a syntax (or grammar) Rules and patterns for making words meaningful
  • Slide 7
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Verbal Languages around the World Use Different Sounds to Convey Meaning
  • Slide 8
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Example of a Focal Vocabulary Saami are indigenous people of Scandinavia and Russia
  • Slide 9
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Saami where they live
  • Slide 10
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Human Verbal Language Key Characteristics Productivity Displacement Formal Properties Sounds Grammar Vocabulary
  • Slide 11
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Nonverbal Language and Embodied Communication Sign language and gestures Gestures are movements, usually of the hands, that convey meanings Some gestures may be universally meaningful, but most are culturally specific and must be understood in its cultural context http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/06/16/chimp-hug- kiss.html http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/06/16/chimp-hug- kiss.html Sign language is a form of communication that uses mainly hand movements to convey messages May be used by the hearing impaired as their main form of communication May be used in situations where verbal communication is forbidden or undesirable
  • Slide 12
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Some South African Gestures that a Man Might Use
  • Slide 13
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Nonverbal Language and Embodied Communication Silence Is an important component of communication Can be associated with power or lack of power Can be associated with respect, or may use silence in situations of ambiguity May be misinterpreted as ignorance
  • Slide 14
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Nonverbal Language and Embodied Communication Body language Involves the body sending and receiving messages Including dress, hair styles, postures, eye contact, walking style Convey messages about age, gender, sexual interest or availability, profession, wealth, and emotions Give boys blue baby blankets and girls pink baby blankets
  • Slide 15
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Hair style is also a form of communication
  • Slide 16
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Communicating with Media and Technology Media anthropology is the cross- cultural study of communication through electronic media and print media Looks at the messages conveyed, the audience response, and the social effects of this Critical media anthropology asks to what degree access to its messages is liberating or controlling, and whose interests the media serves
  • Slide 17
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Communicating with Media and Technology The politics of journalism News stories are packaged differently by journalists depending on the intended audience How accurate is the news? Culture and advertising Advertising to Latinos Promotes a monolithic image of Latino culture Effects identity change, missed opportunities to tap into specialized Latino markets
  • Slide 18
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Communicating with Media and Technology Communication technology and inequality The digital divide refers to social inequality in access to new and emerging information technology, especially access to up-to-date computers, the Internet, and training regarding their use http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/chi- thu_cheappcnov01,0,2887350,full.story?coll=chi_tab0 1_layout http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/chi- thu_cheappcnov01,0,2887350,full.story?coll=chi_tab0 1_layout Knowledge is power! Computers with Internet provide a lot of knowledge and networking opportunities, so provide power Help people preserve and learn ancestral languages, record agricultural and medicinal knowledge, protect culture, improve lives
  • Slide 19
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Culture and Mass Media Journalists in war zones write a story about the same event differently, depending on whether its for a US or European newspaper Media anthropologists study the media process and content, the audience response and the social effects of media presentations Critical media anthropologists ask to what degree access to media messages is liberating or controlling, and whose interests the media serve
  • Slide 20
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Human Communication Fieldwork Research on human communication involves fieldwork and participant observation Often very detailed analysis of tape recordings and video recordings sometimes even frame by frame! Fieldwork Challenges Translation Literal translation Communication always occurs in a cultural context Observers paradox The research process alters peoples normal behavior Especially when being video taped! People want to act correctly and more formally
  • Slide 21
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Language, Thought, and Society: Two Theories Sapir-Whorf hypothesis Argues that language determines how we see the world and our behavior People who speak different languages inhabit different thought worlds e.g. If a language has many different words for different kinds of snow, someone who speaks that language can think about snow in more ways than someone can whose language has fewer snow terms Language shapes culture and thought Sociolinguistic model Study of how cultural and social context shapes language Argues that social position determines the content, meaning, and form of language Culture shapes language
  • Slide 22
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Critical Discourse Analysis Critical discourse analysis focuses on the relations of power and in equality in language Looks at the linkages between social inequality, power, and language
  • Slide 23
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Critical Discourse Analysis Various classes, genders, ethnicities, other subcultures have their own distinctive communication styles (or registers) Include variations in vocabulary, grammar, and intonation
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Critical Discourse Analysis Gender in Euro-American Conversations Characteristics of female speech include Politeness Rising intonation at the end of sentences Tag questions Male speech Less polite Assertive tone Rarely use tag questions Interrupt women in speech more than women interrupt them Both genders use indirect responses
  • Slide 25
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Critical Discourse Analysis Txt talk g2g pos :( ? jj lmao :D ?
  • Slide 26
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Critical Discourse Analysis Txt talk g2g pos :( Got to go, parents over shoulder, crying face jj lmao :D Just joking, laughing my ass off, laughing face
  • Slide 27
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Critical Discourse Analysis African American English (AAE) / Ebonics Debate on whether ebonics should be embraced in the classroom Or whether African American students are expected to shed their culture and language at the door while conforming their language to American Mainstream English
  • Slide 28
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Language Change Language, like culture, is always changing! Adding new words in changing times Borrowing words from other languages Languages may be destroyed
  • Slide 29
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 30
  • Historical Linguistics Historical linguistics is the study of language change through time Often compare lists of words and grammatical forms in different languages Can sometimes tell where people migrated to and which cultures had contact with each other in various poi

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