copyright 2005 allyn & bacon anthropology experience biological anthropology

Download Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Anthropology Experience Biological Anthropology

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Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Anthropology Experience Biological Anthropology Slide 2 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Biological Anthropology Describe and explain the human organism Primatology Paleoanthropology Slide 3 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon The Scientific Method Slide 4 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon The Scientific Method Occams Razor Start with simplest hypothesis first Saves time and resources Falsifiability Hypothesis must be testable Makes science possible Two rules when conducting science: Slide 5 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Before Darwin Georges Cuvier (1724 1829) Catastrophism Divine Origins Charles Lyell (xxxxx) Uniformitarianism Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744 1829) Principle of Use and Disuse Principle of the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics Slide 6 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Natural Selection More Children Than Adults Intraspecific Variation Slide 7 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Natural Selection Reproductive Success Some variations live to reproduce Differential Mortality Some variations die before reproducing Current environmental conditions determine which variations will experience reproductive success and which will suffer differential mortality. Slide 8 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Natural Selection Genetic Drift Random genetic changes Provides new variations in a species Provides opportunity for speciation via natural selection Changing Environments New Variations Speciation or Extinction Slide 9 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Whence Variation? Meiosis/ Sex: the production and union of haploid gametes Mutations During Meiosis: introduces new variations Slide 10 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Taxomony Ananolgies Traits shared due to similar function Homologies Traits share due to common ancestry Ancestral Traits Traits a specie inherited form its ancestors Derived Traits New traits a specie derived from natural selection Slide 11 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Primate Characteristics Elongated Digits Opposable Thumb Flat Nails Friction Skin Semi-erect Posture Reduced Sense of Smell Stereoscopic Vision Large Brain/Body Ratio Adaptations for an arboreal habitat: Slide 12 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Primate Taxonomy Primate AnthropoidProsimian Monkeys, Apes, Hominids Slide 13 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Prosimians Lemur Tarsier Loris Slide 14 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Monkeys (Arboreal Quadrupeds) New World Monkeys Tropical forests of southern Mexico, Central, and South America Some have prehensile tails Old World Monkeys South and East Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Gibraltar (the southern tip of Spain) Some are terrestrial None have prehensile tails Slide 15 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Apes (Brachiator Anatomy) Long arms Curved phalanges Scapula on the back Raised Pelvis Knuckle-walking CultureAfrica and Asia Slide 16 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Fossils Mineralized Fossils Impression Fossils Slide 17 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Dating Methods Reveal how old an object is in relation to other objects Does not provide numerical dates Example: Stratigraphic Dating Relative Dating Slide 18 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Dating Methods Directly dating an object by chemical means Also called chronometric or absolute dating Example: Potassium Argon Dating Direct Dating Slide 19 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Australopithecus afarensis 4.2-2.5 mya 433 cc mean cranial capacity Long arms Curved phalanges Height - F: 3.4 ft./ M: 5 ft. Apish cranial anatomy Slide 20 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Australopithecus africanus 2.5 mya 454 cc mean cranial capacity Long arms Curved Phalanges Height - F: 3.8 ft./ M: 4.5 ft. Apish Cranial Anatomy Slide 21 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Paranthropus 2mya 475 cc mean cranial capacity Dished face Sagittal crest Large mandible Large grinding teeth Similar body to Australopithecus Slide 22 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Homo habilis 2.0 mya 612 mean cranial capacity Less apish cranial anatomy Height M: ? / F: 3.3 ft Oldowan Tools Manufactured Manuports Slide 23 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Homo erectus 1.9 mya 994 cc mean cranial capacity Less apish face Fully modern body Acheulian Tools Flaked Bifaced Migration As far as China and Northern Europe Slide 24 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Why Bipedalism? Greater view above grasses Carry things further More energy efficient Thermoregulation Less sunlight Exposure to cooler air The Savanna Hypothesis Slide 25 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon How More Brains? Must keep brains cool Vascular system Endocasts reveal cranial vascular system A. africanus selects strong cranial radiator to cool brains Allows encephalization The Radiator Hypothesis Slide 26 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Human Variation UV Radiation A stressor Melanin Tan (Temporary) Natural Selection: Darker Populations Skin Color Slide 27 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Human Variation Bergmanns Rule Cold Climate = Bulky Body Allens Rule Warm Climate = Longer Limbs Body Shape Slide 28 Copyright 2005 Allyn & Bacon Human Variation Nasal Index Breadth/height x 100 Increases according to the humidity of the air in which the population evolved Nose Shape Air must be 95% humidity before it reaches the lungs

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