(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter Four Identifying and Programming for Student Needs This multimedia product and its contents.

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  • Chapter FourIdentifying and Programming for Student NeedsThis multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images;any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

    (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004

  • Introduction For a student to be evaluated to determine if he or she is eligible for special education services, a comprehensive process must be in place in every school.All educational procedures must be consistent with the due-process clause under the United States Constitution.

    This process is governed by the IDEA and by regulations developed in each state.

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  • Key Steps in the Special Education Process Prereferral/Child StudyReferralAssessmentDevelopment of IEP

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  • Key Players in the Special Education ProcessSpecial EducatorsGeneral EducatorsAdministrative StaffParents Student Other Professionals:School PsychologistsSpeech/Language TherapistsOccupational TherapistsPhysical TherapistsSocial WorkersOther, as appropriate

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  • Need for a Team ApproachConsideration of a students needs is best accomplished by a team approach.A team, representing various disciplines and relationships with the student, makes key decisions for the student such as:Eligibility for servicesDesign of the IEP Evaluation of Annual IEP ProgressReevaluation for Eligibility

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  • Guidelines for TeamsThe best interests of the student should dictate all aspects of the decision-making process.Sensitivity to family values and cultural differences must pervade all activities.Ongoing and effective home-school collaboration efforts should be established.Parents and students should be given information about educational performance, special education programs and services, and what will happen after formal schooling ends.Students should be taught and encouraged to participate as an active, contributing member of the team.Programs and services should be reviewed regularly, and improvements made whenever possible.

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  • Prereferral Intervention

    Process designed to address the needs of students who have not yet been referred for special educationIntervention occurs within the general education classroomAssistance is provided to the classroom teacher and studentGoal is to provide solutions without formally referring a child for a special education evaluation

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  • Phases of Prereferral InterventionInitial indication that a classroom-based problem existsSystematic examination of the presenting problem(s)that have been indicated by the referral sourceDevelopment of an intervention plan that contains strategies and other suggestions for addressing the problemEvaluation of the effectiveness of the interventions anddecisions on what to do next if the interventions are ineffective

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  • Functions of the Child Study TeamReview available information provided in the initial referralCollection of additional information such as school history, previous evaluations, observations, interviews, etc.Generate suggestions to address students difficulties

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  • Prereferral Intervention StrategiesGenerally implemented for at least one grading period (typically 6 to 9 weeks)Evaluated by team to determine if they are implemented properly and to determine if they are successful

    If interventions are unsuccessful, the team may decide to refer the student for a comprehensive special education evaluation.

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  • The Special Education ProcessA referral for special education consideration marks the official beginning of the special education process.Once a student is referred, there are specific timelines and actions that must be followed to comply with federal and state laws.The first phases of the special education process are:Formal referralDetermination of eligibility

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  • Steps in Formal Referral ProcessStep One: Completion of a formal referralStep Two: Decision to complete a comprehensive evaluation Step Three: Written notice to parents for referral meeting and provision of parental rightsStep Four: Referral meeting with determination made to complete a comprehensive evaluation

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  • Determination of EligibilityEvaluation process begins with the selection of assessments that are appropriate for a childs age, grade level, culture, etc.Evaluation process must be comprehensive and flexible enough to address learning and behavioral difficulties.General education teacher will provide input as well as complete rating scales and checklists, conduct observations, and provide work samples.

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  • Determination of EligibilityEligibility team then examines all assessment data to determine:If a disability exists Whether the student meets state eligibility criteria for that particular disability Whether the student needs special educationIf a student does qualify for special education, then an individualized education program (IEP) must be developed.

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  • IEPsAn IEP is a description of services planned for a student with disabilities.IEPs must be reviewed at least annually.IEP development must be driven by the needs of the student.Goals must be written to address each identified need.

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  • Federal Regulations for IEPsIDEA Amendments and the accompanying final regulations specify the content of IEPs in general, as well as for:Content for transition services for students beginning no later than age 14Special requirements for plans for young children from birth to age 3

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  • General IEP Requirementsfor Students Ages 3 to 21Requirement #1:Statement of present levels of performance and how disability impacts the students progress in the general education curriculumRequirement #2:Measurable goals including short-term benchmarks or objectives enabling the student to be involved in and progress in the regular curriculum (as appropriate) and meet the annual goalsRequirement #3:Special education and related services for the student and supplemental aids

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  • General IEP Requirementsfor Students Ages 3 to 21Requirement #4: Program modifications or supports for school personnel to help student be involved in, and progress in, the curriculum and extra curricular and non-academic activitiesRequirement #5:An explanation of the extent, if any, that the student will not participate in regular education classesRequirement #6:Modifications to be used in state-or district-wide assessments of student achievement

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  • General IEP Requirementsfor Students Ages 3 to 21Requirement #7:Projected dates for beginning of services and the frequency, location, and duration of services and modificationsRequirement #8:How progress toward annual goals and modifications is to be measuredRequirement #9:How parents will be regularly informed (at least as often as nondisabled students) of progress toward annual goals

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  • General IEP Requirementsfor Students Ages 3 to 21Requirement #10:For students age 14 or younger, if appropriate, a statement of transition needs that focuses on the students course of studyRequirement #11:Beginning at age 16 or younger, if appropriate, a statement of interagency responsibilities or linkages if needed.

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  • Individualized FamilyService Plans (IFSPs)Written plan for children ages birth to three and their families IFSPs focus on the family unit and are designed to support the family.

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  • Differences Between IEPs and IFSPsIEPs contain goals; IFSPs contain outcome statements that reflect the needs of the family and childIFSPs are family-oriented; IEPs are child-centeredIFSPs require a service coordinator who is responsible for implementation and for coordinating services with agenciesIFSPs require a transition plan to support the child and family when moving to the the next stage of services at age 3

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  • Present Level of Performance Provides a summary of the students current functioning Serves as the basis for developing annual goalsMust be written in each area of priorityEXAMPLE:The student can identify 50% of the most frequently-used occupational vocabulary words.

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  • Annual Goals Must be based on the unique needs of the studentShould be reasonable projections of what the student can be expected to accomplish in a year Should be measurable, positive, student-oriented, and relevantShould be broken down into short-term objectives

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  • Short-Term ObjectivesShould be written in a logical and sequential series that reflect the annual goal Can be derived based on a task analysis process Should be obtained from the general education curriculum

    EXAMPLE:Given 20 multiplication facts using numbers1-5, John will give correct answers for 15 facts.

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  • Role of the General Education Teacher in the IEP ProcessGeneral educators arent always actively involved in the IEP process even though the IDEA mandates it.General educators must, to the maximum extent, participate in the development, review, and revision of the students IEP.A copy of the IEP should be readily available to general educators throughout the school year.

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  • The IEP and Instructional PlanningThe content should be reflected in the teachers instructional plans.Well thought-out IEPs should form the foundation for an individually designed educational program.Teachers should make efforts to include parents in the implementation and evaluation of the IEP.

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  • Behavior Intervention PlanningFirst introduced in the 1997 IDEA Amendments.Behavior intervention plans are required for:Students whose behavior impede their learning or that of othersStudents who put peers at risk because of their behaviorStudents with disabilities for whom serious disciplinary action is being taken.

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  • Steps in the Behavior Intervention Planning ProcessCollect background information on presenting problemsConduct a functional behavioral assessment of target behaviorsDetermine whether behavior is related to the students disabilityDetermine specific goals that involve either increasing or decreasing the target behaviorDevelop intervention strategies (preferably positive ones)Implement the plan and evaluate its effectivenessRevisit assessment information to design further interventions

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  • Transition Services1990 IDEA Amendments mandated transition services.

    a coordinated set of activities for a student, designed within an outcome oriented process, which promotes movement from school to post-school activities, including post-secondary education, vocational training, integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living or community participation.

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  • Essential Transition ElementsThe student and his/her family need to be actively involved in the process.Planning activities must begin early in a students school career.The complexity of adult life needs to be recognized and planned accordingly.A closer link between transition services and IEP goals should be made.

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  • Role of the General Education Teacher in the Transition ProcessClassroom teachers can integrate real-life topics of current or future importance into existing curriculum. This will make instruction meaningful and relevant.Classroom teachers can participate in contributing information to the transition assessment process.

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  • Extended School Year ServicesSome students with disabilities are eligible for these services.These services are provided beyond the normal school year.These services are provided to ensure continued educational progress.The IEP team determines if these services are needed on a case-by-case basis.

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  • Review and DismissalTwo additional critical features of the special education process are:the ongoing monitoring of a students progress in special education.the determination of a continued need for special education services.A students IEP must be reviewed and revised on at least an annual basis.Every three years, a comprehensive reevaluation must be undertaken.

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  • Section 504 Eligibility & PlanningSection 504 consideration should be given to any student who is referred for special education services but does not qualify under the IDEA.Every public school should have a committee and process for handling Section 504 eligibility and planning activities.

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  • Reasonable Section 504 AccommodationsIf a student is determined to be eligible for Section 504 services, reasonable accommodations must be provided.A written Section 504 accommodation plan is required.This plan specifies the nature and scope of the accommodations to be implemented.

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  • Assessment and the Special Education ProcessAssessment is the process of gathering relevant information to use in making decisions about students.Assessment should be a continuous, dynamic process that guides and directs decisions about students with suspected or known disabilities.

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  • Assessment PhasesScreening PhaseEligibility PhaseProgram Planning PhaseMonitoring and Evaluation Phase

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  • Approaches to AssessmentObservation Recollection Record/Portfolio ReviewTesting

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  • TestingTesting may be formal or informal.Testing is the process of presenting challenges or problems to a student and measuring the students competency, attitude, or behavior by evaluating his or her responses.

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  • Formal AssessmentsContain detailed guidelines for administration, scoring, and interpretation as well as statistical data.Most are norm-referenced because they compare an individuals performance to that of his or her norm group.Most useful when making eligibility and placement decisions

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  • Informal AssessmentsInformal tests and measurements are more loosely structured than formal assessments and are more closely tied to teaching.Their key advantage is a direct application of assessment data to instructional programs.

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  • Types of Informal AssessmentsCriterion-Referenced TestsCurriculum-Based AssessmentEcological Assessment

    Alternative AssessmentAuthentic AssessmentPortfolio Assessment

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  • Legal Requirements for AssessmentNondiscriminatory evaluations Administration in native language or other means of communication Validation of assessment measures Multiple assessments required for determining eligibilityRequired assessment in all areas of suspected disability Must address how to enable the student to participate and progre...

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