(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter Seven Teaching Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders This multimedia product.

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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter Seven Teaching Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
  • Slide 3
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Introduction Although most students are disruptive occasionally, some students behaviors and emotions result in significant problems for themselves, their peers, and their teachers. Although emotional and behavioral problems may result in serious actions, most often, these students have problems associated with acting out and disruptiveness.
  • Slide 4
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Where are Students with E/BD Educated? Eighty-percent all students with E/BD are educated in regular schools. Of these students, nearly 50% spend some or all of their school day in general education classrooms.
  • Slide 5
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Terms Used to Describe Students with E/BD Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Historical term used by federal government Emotionally and Behaviorally Disordered Most widely accepted term
  • Slide 6
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Definition of E/BD The field of E/BD is plagued by definitional problems. These problems include: the many different conceptual models in the field; the different purposes for definitions; the difficulties in measuring both emotions and behavior; the range and variability of normal and deviant behavior; the complex relationship of E/BD to other disabilities; and the transient nature of many emotional/behavioral problems.
  • Slide 7
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 The term means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked extent, which adversely affects educational performance: (A) An inability to learn which cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors; (B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory relationships with peers and teachers; (C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or (E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. (ii)The term includes children who are schizophrenic. The term does not include children who are socially maladjusted unless it is determined that they are seriously emotionally disturbed. Federal Definition
  • Slide 8
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Algozzines Proposed Definition (2001) Students with behavior problems are ones who, after receiving supportive educational services and counseling assistance available to all students, still exhibit persistent and consistent behavioral disorders that consequently interfere with their productive learning processes as well as those others. The inability of these students to achieve adequate academic progress and satisfactory interpersonal relationships cannot be attributed primarily to physical, sensory, or intellectual deficits.
  • Slide 9
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Classification Systems Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-IV) Divides disorders into clinical subtypes Used by psychiatrists and mental health professionals Differs from the federal special education definition Quay and Peterson Identifies six major subgroups of children with E/BD: Conduct Disorder Socialized Aggression Attention Problems-Immaturity Anxiety/Withdrawal Psychotic Behavior Motor Excess
  • Slide 10
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 A Functional Approach to Assessment and Intervention Classification becomes less important when this approach is used. Approach emphasizes determining which environmental stimuli result in inappropriate behaviors. Once these stimuli are identified and altered, the inappropriate behaviors may decrease or disappear.
  • Slide 11
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Prevalence of E/BD In the school-age population, the range of estimates of the prevalence of E/BD is great. 0.94% (U.S. Department of Education) 22% (Cotler, 1986) 14% (Brandenburg, Friedman, & Silver, 1990) The specific number depends on the definition used and the interpretation of the definition by individuals who classify students. The general consensus is that E/BD is a dramatically underserved category of disability. Males may be identified as much as 10 times more often than females.
  • Slide 12
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Theoretical Causes Biological Psychoanalytical Behavioral Phenomenological Sociological/Ecological
  • Slide 13
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Environmental factors (family, school, and community) can play an important role in the development of some emotional and behavioral disorders.
  • Slide 14
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Characteristics Aggressive/Acting- Out Behaviors Social Deficits Inadequate Peer Relationships Hyperactivity/ Distractibility Lying, Cheating, and Stealing Academic Deficits Anxiety
  • Slide 15
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Externalizing & Internalizing Behaviors EXTERNALIZING Aggressiveness Defiance Disobedience Noncompliant Temper Tantrums Argumentative Destructive Pattern of Lying & Stealing Lack of Self-Control INTERNALIZING Withdrawn Fearful, Anxious Sad, Moody, Depressed Irritable Apathetic Avoidance of Social Situations Inappropriate Crying Self-Consciousness
  • Slide 16
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Depression Often overlooked problem 2.4% of elementary school children and 4%-8% of adolescents suffer from depression Between 30%-40% of students in E/BD classes suffer from depression May be particularly significant for girls, although boys may be underdiagnosed Teachers need to aware that the signs of depression may be attributed to an inability to concentrate or achieve.
  • Slide 17
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Academic Problems Academic problems often are a key concern. Students with E/BD frequently are observed to exhibit: Below-average achievement in content area courses Deficits in basic academics A general lack of motivation in school Deficiencies in school-related skills such as note- taking and test-taking. Academic problems may be most pronounced in instances of significant antisocial behavior.
  • Slide 18
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Outcomes and Post-School Adjustment Higher rates of contact with police, arrests, and incarceration Significant problems with reading and math High school dropout rates Poor community adjustment High rates of unemployment Persistence of mental health problems More likely to be hospitalized for behavioral health care
  • Slide 19
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Types of Assessment Clinical Interviews Observations Rating Scales Personality Tests
  • Slide 20
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Strength-Based Assessment Strength-based assessment is defined as the measurement of those emotional/ behavioral skills and characteristics that create a sense of personal accomplishment; contribute to satisfying relationships with family members, peers, and adults; enhance ones ability to deal with adversity and stress; and promote ones personal, social, and academic development (Epstein & Charma, 1998, p. 3).
  • Slide 21
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Manifestation of the Disability A key issue is field of E/BD is the relationship between the disability and the behaviors that are exhibited in school. Under IDEA guidelines, educators must determine whether the behavior in question is a manifestation of the students disability. The key question is whether the students disability impairs his or her ability to control behavior The purpose of this mandate is to prevent the misapplication of disciplinary actions to students whose disability is directly related to their misbehavior.
  • Slide 22
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Questions to Consider When Determining if a Students Behavior is a Manifestation of His/Her Disability Does the student know right from wrong? Does the disability limit the students ability to handle stressful situations? Does the disability interfere with the students ability to build or maintain appropriate peer and/or teacher relationships? Does the disability interfere with the students ability to learn how to appropriately express his or her feelings?
  • Slide 23
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Functional Behavioral Assessment Defined as an analysis of the contingencies responsible for behavioral problems (Malott,Whaley, & Malott, 1997, p. 433) A functional assessment helps teachers better understand disruptive behaviors which can lead to more effective Interventions.
  • Slide 24
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Variables that Influence Behavior Physiological Factors Examples: Sickness, Fatigue Classroom Environment Examples: Noise Level, Temperature Curriculum & Instruction Examples: Assignment Difficulty Level, Lack of Predictability in Schedule
  • Slide 25
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Behavioral Intervention Plan Should be developed based on a functional behavioral assessment Focus should be on changing: the environmental setting and/or the events associated with the behavior
  • Slide 26
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Educational Placements Approximately half of all students identified as E/BD will spend much of their time in general education classrooms. Students with E/BD are less likely to be included in general education classrooms than students with other types of disabilities.
  • Slide 27
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Inclusion and Students with E/BD Students with E/BD present special challenges for teachers. General education teachers and special education teachers need to collaborate to develop and implement effective intervention programs. Consistency in behavior management and other strategies is critical. As more students are included in general education classrooms, many students with E/BD are being reintegrated into general classrooms from more restrictive settings.
  • Slide 28
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Effective Instructional Practices (Wehby, Symons, Canale, & Go (1998) Providing appropriate structure and predictable routines Establishing a structured and consistent classroom environment Establishing a consistent schedule with set rules and consequences and clear expectations
  • Slide 29
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Effective Instructional Practices (Wehby, Symons, Canale, & Go (1998) Fostering positive teacher-student interactions with adequate praise and systematic responses to problem behaviors Frequently implementing instructional sequences that promote high rates of academic engagement Creating a classroom environment in which seatwork is limited and sufficient time is allotted for establishing positive social interactions
  • Slide 30
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Teaching Social Skills Social skills are best learned from observing others who display appropriate skills. At times, formal instruction in social skills must be provided. Steps to Teaching Social Skills: Assessment of Students Level of Social Competence Development and Implementation of an Instructional Approach to Address Deficiencies in Social Skills
  • Slide 31
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Problems in Social Skills Training Only about half of students with E/BD benefit from social skills training. Problems with generalization across settings have been noted in research. To facilitate generalization, school-wide instruction, modeling, and reinforcement of appropriate social behaviors should be provided. Greater success is obtained when the focus is on teaching specific social skills such as: Social problem solving Social interaction Cooperation
  • Slide 32
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Standard Operating Procedures Effective Classroom Rules Effective Classroom Procedures
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Physical Accommodations Arrange traffic patterns to lessen contact and disruptions. Arrange student desks to facilitate monitoring of students at all times. Physically locate students with disruptive tendencies near the teachers primary location. Create spaces where students can do quiet work.
  • Slide 34
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Components of a Preventive Discipline Program (Sabatino, 1987) Structure the curriculum and classroom environment. Demonstrate fairness. Use positive modeling.Avoid threats. Recognize student attributes at optimal times. Provide a meaningful learning experience. Recognize positive student attributes. Establish a positive learning climate. Build and exhibit self- confidence. Inform students of what is expected of them.
  • Slide 35
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Positive Behavior Supports Definition of Positive Behavior Those skills that increase the likelihood of success and personal satisfaction in academic, work, social, recreation, community, and family settings. Definition of Support Encompasses educational methods that can be used to teach, strengthen, and expand positive behavior.
  • Slide 36
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Positive Behavioral Supports Provide an alternative to punitive disciplinary strategies Provide guidance to students with behavioral problems to make appropriate changes in their behavioral patterns Emphasize proactive, preventive strategies and early intervention
  • Slide 37
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Components of an Effective Positive Behavioral Support Program Specialized individual behavior support for students with chronic behavior problems Specialized group behavior support for students without-risk problem behavior Universal group behavior support for most students
  • Slide 38
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Effective Strategies Good Behavior Game Contingency Contracting Individual Behavior Management Plans Reinforcement Programs Differential reinforcement of zero rates of undesirable behaviors Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors Differential reinforcement of lower rates of behavior Differential reinforcement of communicative behaviors
  • Slide 39
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Other Effective Strategies Cognitive Approaches Self-management Peer Mediation Approaches
  • Slide 40
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Behavior Intervention Plans IDEA requires school personnel to develop a behavioral intervention plan for students with disabilities who exhibit chronic behavior problems. This plan should be developed as part of the IEP process. The plan should include strategies to address significant behavioral problems.
  • Slide 41
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Medication Benefits: Increased Attention Reduction in Aggressive Behavior Medication Concerns: Side Effects Need for Monitoring
  • Slide 42
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Technology Assistive technology offers a number of ways for teachers to adapt curriculum and instruction and respond to the needs of students with E/BD
  • Slide 43
  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Role of the Classroom Teacher in Facilitating Inclusive Practices Initial Prereferral Review Referral to Special Education IEP Planning Intervention

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