Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 3 Biopsychology.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Chapter 3Biopsychology

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 What is Biopsychology?Biopsychology The specialty in psychology that studies the interaction of biology, behavior, and the environment.Neuroscience Interdisciplinary field that focuses on the brain and its role in psychological processes.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007How Are Genes and Behavior Linked?

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007How Are Genes and Behavior Linked?Innate Inborn; present at birth; part of the organisms biological heritage.Evolution The gradual process of biological change that occurs in a species as it adapts to its environment.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Evolution and Natural SelectionNatural selection The driving force behind evolution, by which the environment selects the fittest organisms.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Genes and InheritanceGenotype An organisms genetic makeup.

    Phenotype An organisms observable physical characteristics.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA

    DNA A long, complex molecule that encodes genetic characteristics.Genes The functional units of a chromosomecomposed of nucleotides.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Sex chromosomes The X and Y chromosomes that determine our physical sex characteristics.Chromosomes, Genes, and DNAChromosomes Tightly coiled threadlike structures along which the genes are organized.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Genetic Explanations for Psychological ProcessesGenes influence our psychological characteristics as well as our physical traits.

    Nature vs Nurture

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  • Nature vs Nurture Nature GENETICS - The characteristics a person inherits- Biological makeup

    NurtureENVIRONMENT - Family, culture, education, and individual differences

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007How Does the Body Communicate Internally?

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Structure of a Neuron

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The NeuronTypes of Neurons:Sensory (afferent) neurons - carry messages from sense receptors towards the brain.Motor (efferent) neurons - carry messages from the brain toward muscles and glands.Interneurons - carry messages between nerve cells.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Neural ImpulseResting potential - Electrical charge of the axon when in its inactive state. Action potential - The neuron fires; the charge travels down the axon and causes neurotransmitters to be released.

    ALL-OR-NONE!!!

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Neural ImpulseSynapse - The gap between neurons.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Neural ImpulseSynaptic transmission- Relaying information across the synapse by means of chemical neurotransmitters.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersNeurotransmitters Chemical messengers that relay neural messages across the synapse. ANIMATION

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Seven Important NeurotransmittersDopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineEndorphinsNorepinephrineGABAGlutamate

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersDopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineEndorphinsNorepinephrineGABAGlutamateNormal Function:Produces sensations of pleasure and reward; used by CNS neurons in voluntary movementDeficit:Parkinsons disease, anxiety, memory problems, ADHDSurplus:Schizophrenia, drug addiction

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersDopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineEndorphinsNorepinephrineGABAGlutamateNormal Function:Regulates sleep, mood, appetite, and sexual behaviorDeficit:Depression, anger, and mood disordersSurplus:Mania

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersDopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineEndorphinsNorepinephrineGABAGlutamateNormal Function:Used for arousal in the flight/fight response, plays a role in learning and memory retrievalDeficit:Low energy, depressionSurplus:Anxiety

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersDopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineEndorphinsNorepinephrineGABAGlutamateNormal Function:Stimulates muscle contractions; involved in memoryDeficit:Lack of muscle movement, paralysis, Alzheimers diseaseSurplus:Muscle spasms

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersDopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineEndorphinsNorepinephrineGABAGlutamateNormal Function:Most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitterDeficit:Anxiety, seizuresSurplus:Sleep and eating disorders

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersDopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineEndorphinsNorepinephrineGABAGlutamateNormal Function:Pleasurable sensations, reduction of stress, and control of painDeficit:Chronic painSurplus:Artificial highs; body might not give warning about pain

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersDopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineEndorphinsNorepinephrineGABAGlutamateNormal Function:Primary excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in learning and memory, movement Deficit:noneSurplus:Associated with epileptic seizures

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007PlasticityPlasticity Ability of the nervous system to adapt or change as the result of experience; sometimes helps the nervous system adapt to physical damage.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Glial CellsGlial cells:Provide structural support for neuronsHelp in forming new synapsesForm myelin sheath

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Organization of the Nervous SystemNervous system

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  • Two Divisions of the Nervous SystemCentral Nervous System (CNS)Made up of the brain and spinal cord.

    Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)Nerves branching out from the spinal cord.

  • Two Divisions of the PNSSomatic NS controls voluntary behaviors

    Autonomic NS controls involuntary behaviors

    Sympathetic fight or flight

    Parasympathetic rest and digest

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Endocrine System(the bodys chemical messenger system)

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Endocrine SystemPituitary gland Master glandProduces hormones influencing the secretions of all other endocrine glands.Produces hormones that influences growth.

    Video Clip - Gigantism

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  • The Endocrine SystemThyroid gland - Affects metabolism

    Hypothyroidism makes people feel lazy and lethargic. Hyperthyroidism causes people to lose weight and be overactive.

  • The Endocrine SystemAdrenal glands - Release adrenaline into the bloodstream. - Help trigger the fight or flight response.Causes heart rate and breathing to increaseHeightens emotions (fear, anxiety)

  • The Endocrine System

    Sex glands:Ovaries - Produce eggs and the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Testes - Produce sperm and the male sex hormone testosterone.

  • Hormones vs Neurotransmitters Endocrine System- Glands release hormones into the bloodstream. Nervous System - Neurons release neurotransmitters to either excite or inhibit other neurons.

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007How Does the Brain Produce Behavior and Mental Processes?

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The BrainEEG (electroencephalograph) Device for recording brain waves, typically by electrodes placed on the scalp.Brain waves Patterns of electrical activity generated by the brain.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The BrainLesions Tissue damage that results from disease or injury.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The BrainBrain scans Recordings of the brains electrical or biochemical activity at specific sites.CT scanning (computerized tomography)PET scanning (positron emission tomography)MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Three Layers of the BrainBrain stem and cerebellum~Drive vital functions, such as heart rate, breathing, digestion.medulla, pons, reticular formation, thalamusLimbic system~Adds emotions, complex motives, increased memory abilities.hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamusCerebrum~Enables reasoning, planning, creating, problem solving.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Three Layers of the BrainBrain stem and cerebellum~Drive vital functions, such as heart rate, breathing, digestion.medullaponsreticular formationthalamus

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  • Medulla OblongataControls breathing and heartbeat.

  • PonsRegulates brain activity during sleep and dreaming.

  • Reticular FormationResponsible for arousal of the sympathetic nervous system.Keeps the brain alert & attentive- Reticular Activating System (RAS)

  • ThalamusRelay Station

    Sends messages from the body to the appropriate part of the brain.

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  • CerebellumResponsible for balance and motor movement.

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Brain Stem and CerebellumThalamusPonsCerebellumMedullaBrain stem

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Three Layers of the BrainLimbic system~Adds emotions, complex motives, increased memory abilities.hippocampusamygdalahypothalamus

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Limbic SystemHippocampus Involved in establishing long-term memories.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Limbic SystemAmygdala Involved in memory and emotion, particularly fear and aggression.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Limbic SystemHypothalamus Serves as the brains blood-testing laboratory, constantly monitors blood to determine the condition of the body.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Four LobesFrontal lobe (thinking, planning, decision-making)Parietal lobe (touch sensations and spatial relationships)Occipital lobe (visual signals)Temporal lobe (processes sounds, including hearing and speech)

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Frontal LobeMotor CortexControls voluntary movement

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Parietal LobeSomatosensory CortexSensations and touch

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Occipital LobeVisual CortexVisual processing area

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Temporal LobeAuditory CortexHelps to make sense of sounds

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007LanguageBrocas AreaProducing languageWernickes AreaUnderstanding languageAphasiaLoss of speech caused by brain damage

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Brain Corpus CallosumThe band of nerve cells that connects the two hemispheres.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The CerebrumCerebrum Topmost layer of the brain; the bulbous cap over the limbic system.Cerebral cortex Thin gray-matter covering of the cerebrum; carries on thinking and perceiving.Cerebral hemispheres The two walnut shaped halves of the cerebrum, connected by the corpus callosum.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Cerebral DominanceCerebral dominance Tendency of each brain hemisphere to exert control over different functions.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Cerebral HemispheresLeft HemisphereRight HemisphereLogicalMathematicalMemory for words and numbersWord recognitionPositive emotion

    CreativityFacial recognitionMemory for shapes and musicSpatial interpretationNegative emotion

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The BrainEpilepsy Brain disorder that is often marked by seizures and loss of consciousness; caused by out-of-control electrical activity in the brain.

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  • Split-Brain Operations

    A treatment option for those suffering from grand mal seizures.

    Separating the brain hemispheres by severing the corpus callosum lessons the number and severity of seizures.Mr. Split-Brainy

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