copyright © allyn & bacon 2007 chapter 3 biopsychology

Download Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 3 Biopsychology

Post on 19-Jan-2016

218 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Chapter 3Biopsychology

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 What is Biopsychology?Biopsychology The specialty in psychology that studies the interaction of biology, behavior, and the environment.Neuroscience Interdisciplinary field that focuses on the brain and its role in psychological processes.

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007How Are Genes and Behavior Linked?

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007How Are Genes and Behavior Linked?Innate Inborn; present at birth; part of the organisms biological heritage.Evolution The gradual process of biological change that occurs in a species as it adapts to its environment.

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Evolution and Natural SelectionNatural selection The driving force behind evolution, by which the environment selects the fittest organisms.

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Genes and InheritanceGenotype An organisms genetic makeup.

    Phenotype An organisms observable physical characteristics.

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA

    DNA A long, complex molecule that encodes genetic characteristics.Genes The functional units of a chromosomecomposed of nucleotides.

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Sex chromosomes The X and Y chromosomes that determine our physical sex characteristics.Chromosomes, Genes, and DNAChromosomes Tightly coiled threadlike structures along which the genes are organized.

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Genetic Explanations for Psychological ProcessesGenes influence our psychological characteristics as well as our physical traits.

    Nature vs Nurture

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Nature vs Nurture Nature GENETICS - The characteristics a person inherits- Biological makeup

    NurtureENVIRONMENT - Family, culture, education, and individual differences

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007How Does the Body Communicate Internally?

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Structure of a Neuron

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The NeuronTypes of Neurons:Sensory (afferent) neurons - carry messages from sense receptors towards the brain.Motor (efferent) neurons - carry messages from the brain toward muscles and glands.Interneurons - carry messages between nerve cells.

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Neural ImpulseResting potential - Electrical charge of the axon when in its inactive state. Action potential - The neuron fires; the charge travels down the axon and causes neurotransmitters to be released.

    ALL-OR-NONE!!!

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Neural ImpulseSynapse - The gap between neurons.

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Neural ImpulseSynaptic transmission- Relaying information across the synapse by means of chemical neurotransmitters.

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersNeurotransmitters Chemical messengers that relay neural messages across the synapse. ANIMATION

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Seven Important NeurotransmittersDopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineEndorphinsNorepinephrineGABAGlutamate

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersDopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineEndorphinsNorepinephrineGABAGlutamateNormal Function:Produces sensations of pleasure and reward; used by CNS neurons in voluntary movementDeficit:Parkinsons disease, anxiety, memory problems, ADHDSurplus:Schizophrenia, drug addiction

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersDopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineEndorphinsNorepinephrineGABAGlutamateNormal Function:Regulates sleep, mood, appetite, and sexual behaviorDeficit:Depression, anger, and mood disordersSurplus:Mania

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersDopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineEndorphinsNorepinephrineGABAGlutamateNormal Function:Used for arousal in the flight/fight response, plays a role in learning and memory retrievalDeficit:Low energy, depressionSurplus:Anxiety

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersDopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineEndorphinsNorepinephrineGABAGlutamateNormal Function:Stimulates muscle contractions; involved in memoryDeficit:Lack of muscle movement, paralysis, Alzheimers diseaseSurplus:Muscle spasms

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersDopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineEndorphinsNorepinephrineGABAGlutamateNormal Function:Most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitterDeficit:Anxiety, seizuresSurplus:Sleep and eating disorders

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersDopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineEndorphinsNorepinephrineGABAGlutamateNormal Function:Pleasurable sensations, reduction of stress, and control of painDeficit:Chronic painSurplus:Artificial highs; body might not give warning about pain

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersDopamineSerotoninAcetylcholineEndorphinsNorepinephrineGABAGlutamateNormal Function:Primary excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in learning and memory, movement Deficit:noneSurplus:Associated with epileptic seizures

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007PlasticityPlasticity Ability of the nervous system to adapt or change as the result of experience; sometimes helps the nervous system adapt to physical damage.

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Glial CellsGlial cells:Provide structural support for neuronsHelp in forming new synapsesForm myelin sheath

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Organization of the Nervous SystemNervous system

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Two Divisions of the Nervous SystemCentral Nervous System (CNS)Made up of the brain and spinal cord.

    Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)Nerves branching out from the spinal cord.

  • Two Divisions of the PNSSomatic NS controls voluntary behaviors

    Autonomic NS controls involuntary behaviors

    Sympathetic fight or flight

    Parasympathetic rest and digest

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Endocrine System(the bodys chemical messenger system)

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Endocrine SystemPituitary gland Master glandProduces hormones influencing the secretions of all other endocrine glands.Produces hormones that influences growth.

    Video Clip - Gigantism

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • The Endocrine SystemThyroid gland - Affects metabolism

    Hypothyroidism makes people feel lazy and lethargic. Hyperthyroidism causes people to lose weight and be overactive.

  • The Endocrine SystemAdrenal glands - Release adrenaline into the bloodstream. - Help trigger the fight or flight response.Causes heart rate and breathing to increaseHeightens emotions (fear, anxiety)

  • The Endocrine System

    Sex glands:Ovaries - Produce eggs and the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Testes - Produce sperm and the male sex hormone testosterone.

  • Hormones vs Neurotransmitters Endocrine System- Glands release hormones into the bloodstream. Nervous System - Neurons release neurotransmitters to either excite or inhibit other neurons.

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007How Does the Brain Produce Behavior and Mental Processes?

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The BrainEEG (electroencephalograph) Device for recording brain waves, typically by electrodes placed on the scalp.Brain waves Patterns of electrical activity generated by the brain.

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The BrainLesions Tissue damage that results from disease or injury.

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 200

Recommended

View more >