copyright © allyn & bacon 2007 unit 7a memory. memory games http://www.exploratorium.edu/memory/...

Download Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Unit 7A Memory. Memory Games http://www.exploratorium.edu/memory/ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

Post on 24-Dec-2015

218 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Slide 1
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Unit 7A Memory
  • Slide 2
  • Memory Games http://www.exploratorium.edu/memory/ Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007
  • Slide 3
  • Human memory is learning what has persisted over time, information that has been stored and can be retrieved What is Memory?
  • Slide 4
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 What is Memory? Memory Any system human, animal, or machine that encodes, stores, and retrieves information
  • Slide 5
  • You are what you remember Without memory you would have no past or future, only a present Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007
  • Slide 6
  • EncodingStorageRetrieval 3 basic tasks of memory
  • Slide 7
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 EncodingStorageRetrieval Putting info in the brain Elaboration trying to understand it Making it meaningful to you The way I see it!!
  • Slide 8
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 EncodingStorageRetrieval Keeping the info in the brain The way I see it!!
  • Slide 9
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 EncodingStorageRetrieval Getting stuff out of your brain The way I see it!!
  • Slide 10
  • Models of memory By Atkinson and Shiffrin the older model Sensory memory a fleeting needs to be remembered info Short-term Memory- where we encode the information through rehearsal Long-term memory- used to be retrieved later Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007
  • Slide 11
  • What is Atkinson Shiffrin model of memory storage?
  • Slide 12
  • Figure 7A.2 A modified three-stage processing model of memory Atkinson and Shiffrins classic three-step model helps us to think about how memories are processed, but todays researchers recognize other ways long-term memories form. For example, some information slips into long-term memory via a back door, without our consciously attending to it. And so much active processing occurs in the short-term memory stage that many now prefer the term working memory. 2011 by Worth Publishers
  • Slide 13
  • Working memory: updated model Process new information along with information from long term memory.Working memory associates new and old information and solves problems. Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007
  • Slide 14
  • Lets talk about encoding. Putting info into the brain
  • Slide 15
  • How we encode Automatic processing- parallel processing doing many things at once. Ex: you automatically process info about space, time, frequency: Where you ate last night? Takes no effort Effortful processing- encoded info with a great deal of effort usually long-lasting memories- uses rehearsal- remembering vocab words: Units vocabulary Elaborative rehearsal- Relate the new information to something already in your Long Term Memory Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007
  • Slide 16
  • Now lets try something.
  • Slide 17
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Can you remember this? GBX IYU CSE GWE LIY TRN
  • Slide 18
  • Ebbinghaus- Those who learn quickly forget quickly. The amount recalled depends on time spent learning Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007
  • Slide 19
  • What is spacing effect? Memory is better for repeated information if repetitions occur spaced over time than if they occur massed, one after another. No cramming! Why? 1.Spacing distributed practice (instead of massed practice) reduces retroactive and proactive interference. (Proactive- old memories, Retroactive- new memories) 2.REM sleep helps memory. So study Tuesday, sleep, study Wednesday, sleep. Youll do better. 3.Distributed practice may cause you to encode it in different ways and in different moods. Melton & Schulman, 1970
  • Slide 20
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 What is serial positioning effect? Imagine a grocery list: milk, eggs, butter, bread, celery, chocolate, Big Red, Beans, chips. We most likely will remember the first few items and the last few.
  • Slide 21
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Encoding: Serial Position Effect 12 Percent age of words recalled 0 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Position of word in list 1234567891011 Serial Position Effect-tendency to recall best the last items in a list
  • Slide 22
  • What we encode Levels of processing- when processing verbal information we associate it with what we already know. Depends on context, our experiences. What encoding gets the best results? Visual= images, acoustic= sounds and Semantic= meaning of words Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007
  • Slide 23
  • Acoustic encoding Click it or ticket, Drive Sober or get Pulled over, If the glove doesnt fit you must equit
  • Slide 24
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Acoustic encoding Think of a song!!!!!!!!! What are the parts of the human body?
  • Slide 25
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Can you remember all 50 states? Make up a song. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A9RlJ q3IOHg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A9RlJ q3IOHg
  • Slide 26
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Semantic encoding Semantic means meaning. We remember stuff that has meaning better than their structure and sounds. Find meaning in what you are trying to remember
  • Slide 27
  • Visual encoding How do the words appear? ALL CAPITALS Using mental images to remember. Where is something located on the page? Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007
  • Slide 28
  • Mnemonics (encoding) Chunking organizing items into familiar, manageable units like horizontal organization--1776149218121941 often occurs automatically use of acronyms HOMES--Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior PEMDAS - ?????
  • Slide 29
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chunking Can you remember this number? 19039848557
  • Slide 30
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Levels of Encoding
  • Slide 31
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 How can we use this as students?
  • Slide 32
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Encoding is effective when You pay attention. Selective attention If you dont pay attention, your sensory memory will hear blah, blah. You have to pay attention to get info into your working memory
  • Slide 33
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Encoding summary Encoding is most effective when we can see it, hear it, touch it, and UNDERSTAND it. Also, its most effective when we combine those elements. Encoding is best when we care.
  • Slide 34
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 If a subject is asked to remember this list of numbers in 10 seconds: 48, 31, 45, 76, 97, 84, 26, 12, 67, which numbers will she most likely remember? a.84, 45 b.48, 67 c.12, 31 d.97, 76
  • Slide 35
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Each of the three memory stages encodes and stores memories in a different way, but they work together to transform sensory experience into a lasting record that has a pattern of meaning Now lets talk about storage
  • Slide 36
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 What are the Three Stages of Memory? Sensory Memory Working Memory (STM) Long-term Memory
  • Slide 37
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 The First Stage: Sensory Memory On the next slide, you will see a series of letters for one second Try to remember as many letters as you can
  • Slide 38
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 D J B X H G C L Y
  • Slide 39
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 The First Stage: Sensory Memory How many can you recall?
  • Slide 40
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 D J B X H G C L Y
  • Slide 41
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 The First Stage: Sensory Memory Sensory Memory has a large capacity, very short duration, allows quick/online commerce with environment. It registers sensations coming into our "system" from the environment, allowing us to pick up on all the rich stimuli "out there." There are many "types" of sensory memories, corresponding to our different senses, as in eyes, hears, touch, taste, etc.
  • Slide 42
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sensory memory Sensory memory lasts no more than 2 seconds. The precise length of different types of sensory memories differs (e.g., visual sensory memory is shorter than auditory).
  • Slide 43
  • What is sensory memory? Iconic memory- fleeting photographic memory. For a few 10ths of a second our eyes take an exact picture of a scene Echoic memory- impeccable, yet fleeting, auditory memory Auditory echoes last for about 3 4 seconds Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007
  • Slide 44
  • Sensory Memory Sensory memory traces fade fairly rapidly. We simply lose the information UNLESS we do something further with it. Pay attention to it Selective attention
  • Slide 45
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Three Stages of Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory STM Long-term Memory Preserves recently perceived events or experiences for less than a minute without rehearsal.
  • Slide 46
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007
  • Slide 4

Recommended

View more >