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  • Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

    Chapter 9

    Psychological Development

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    ISBN: 0-131-73180-7

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

    Developmental Psychology

    Developmental psychology

    The study of how organisms change over

    time as the result of biological and

    environmental influences

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

    How Do Psychologists

    Explain Development?

    Development is a process of

    growth and change brought

    about by an interaction of

    heredity and the

    environment

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    The Nature-Nurture

    Interaction

    Nature-nurture issue

    Long-standing discussion over relative

    importance of nature (heredity) and

    nurture (environment) in their influence

    on behavior and mental processes

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    The Nature-Nurture

    Interaction

    Twin studies

    Developmental investigations in which

    twins, especially identical twins, are

    compared in the search for genetic and

    environmental effects

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    The Nature-Nurture

    Interaction

    Identical twins

    A pair who started life as a single

    fertilized egg which later split into two

    distinct individuals

    Fraternal twins

    A pair who started life as two separate

    fertilized eggs that happened to share the

    same womb

  • Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

    The Nature-Nurture

    Interaction

    Adoption studies

    Studies in which the adopted childs

    characteristics are compared to those of

    the biological family and the adoptive

    family

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    Gradual versus Abrupt Change

    Continuity view vs. Discontinuity view

    Age

    Pe

    rfo

    rma

    nce

    Continuity view

    Discontinuity view

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    Gradual versus Abrupt Change

    Developmental stages

    Periods of life initiated by significant

    transitions or changes in physical or

    psychological functioning

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    Psychological Traits in Your Genes

    While psychological traits are formed by

    interaction of heredity and the

    environment, many traits have a strong

    genetic influence

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    What Capabilities Does the

    Child Possess?

    Newborns have innate

    abilities for finding

    nourishment, interacting with

    others, and avoiding harmful

    situations; the developing

    abilities of infants and

    children rely on learning

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    Prenatal Development

    Prenatal period The developmental period before birth

    Zygote

    Embryo

    Fetus

    Placenta An organ that develops between the embryo/fetus and the mother

    Teratogens Toxic substances that can damage the developing organism

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    Neonatal Period

    (from birth to one month)

    Sensory abilities

    Motor abilities

    Postural reflex

    Grasping reflex

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    Infancy

    (from one month to about 18 months)

    Babies learn through classical conditioning

    Humans apparently have an inborn need

    for attachment

    Secure attachment

    Anxious-ambivalent attachment

    Avoidant attachment

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    Infancy

    (from one month to about 18 months)

    Maturation

    The unfolding of genetically programmed

    processes of growth and development

    over time

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    Maturation Timetable for Locomotion

    Birth

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    Maturation Timetable for Locomotion

    Responds to sound

    Becomes quiet when picked up

    Vocalizes occasionally

    Birth 1 mo.

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    Maturation Timetable for Locomotion

    Smiles socially

    Recognizes mother

    Rolls from side to back

    Lifts head and holds it erect and steady

    Birth 1 mo. 2 mo.

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    Maturation Timetable for Locomotion

    Vocalizes to the smiles and talk of an adult

    Searches for source of sound

    Sits with support, head steady

    Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo.

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    Maturation Timetable for Locomotion

    Gaze follows dangling ring, vanishing spoon, and ball moved across table

    Sits with slight support

    Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo.

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    Maturation Timetable for Locomotion

    Discriminates strangers from familiar persons

    Turns from back to side

    Makes distinctive vocalizations

    Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo. 5 mo.

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    Maturation Timetable for Locomotion

    Lifts cup and bangs it

    Smiles at mirror image

    Reaches for small object

    Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo. 5 mo. 6 mo.

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    Maturation Timetable for Locomotion

    Makes playful responses to mirror

    Sits alone steadily

    Crawls

    Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo. 5 mo. 6 mo.

    7 mo.

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    Maturation Timetable for Locomotion

    Vocalizes up to four different syllables

    Listens selectively to familiar words

    Pulls to standing position

    Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo. 5 mo. 6 mo.

    7 mo. 8 mo.

  • Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

    Maturation Timetable for Locomotion

    Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo. 5 mo. 6 mo.

    7 mo. 8 mo. 9 mo.

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    Maturation Timetable for Locomotion

    Plays pat-a-cake

    Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo. 5 mo. 6 mo.

    7 mo. 8 mo. 9 mo. 10 mo.

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    Maturation Timetable for Locomotion

    Stands alone

    Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo. 5 mo. 6 mo.

    7 mo. 8 mo. 9 mo. 10 mo. 11 mo.

  • Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

    Maturation Timetable for Locomotion

    Walks alone

    Birth 1 mo. 2 mo. 3 mo. 4 mo. 5 mo. 6 mo.

    7 mo. 8 mo. 9 mo. 10 mo. 11 mo. 1 year

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

    What Are the

    Developmental Tasks of

    Infancy and Childhood?

    Infants and children face

    especially important

    developmental tasks in the

    areas of cognition and social

    relationships tasks that lay a

    foundation for further growth in

    adolescence and adulthood

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    Cognitive Development

    Cognitive development

    The process by which thinking changes

    over time

    Schemes

    Mental structures or

    programs that guide a

    developing childs thoughts

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    Accommodation

    Mental process that

    restructures existing

    schemes so that new

    information is better understood

    Cognitive Development

    Assimilation

    Mental process that modifies new

    information to fit it into existing

    schemes

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    Piagets Stages of Cognitive

    Development

    Sensorimotor

    Preoperational

    Concrete Operational

    Formal Operational

    Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

    Piagets Stages of Cognitive

    Development

    Sensorimotor

    Preoperational

    Concrete Operational

    Formal Operational

    Birth to about age 2

    Child relies heavily on

    innate motor

    responses to stimuli

    Sensorimotor

    intelligence

    Mental representations

    Object permanence

  • Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

    Piagets Stages of Cognitive

    Development

    Sensorimotor

    Preoperational

    Concrete Operational

    Formal Operational

    About age 2 to age 6 or 7

    Marked by well-developed mental representation and the use

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