(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter Fourteen Classroom Organization and Management This multimedia product and its contents

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter Fourteen Classroom Organization and Management This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Introduction A teachers ability to manage his or her classroom can greatly enhance the quality of the education for all students, including those with special needs. Organizational and management dimensions are typically deemphasized in teacher education programs. Classroom management is the area that first- year teachers consistently identify as most problematic for them. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Classroom management is a systematic structuring of the classroom environment to create conditions in which effective teaching and learning can occur. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Model of Classroom Management (Dole,1996) Multidimensionality Simultaneity Immediacy Unpredictability Publicness History </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Guiding Principles All students must be valued. Meaningful relationships between teachers and students need to be developed and cultivated. Successful management derives from a positive classroom environment. Good classroom organization and management must be planned ahead of time. Affording students choices contributes to effective classroom dynamics. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Guiding Principles Teachers and students in effective classrooms are considerate of individual differences. Proactive management is preferable to reactive approaches. Consistency is the key to an effective management program. Two characteristics enhance a teachers ability to manage a classroom: With-it-ness Overlap </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Dimensions of Classroom Management &amp; Organization CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Psychosocial Dimension Physical Dimension Instructional Dimension Organizational Dimension Procedural Dimension Behavior Dimension </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Psychosocial Dimension Refers to the psychological and social dynamics of the classroom. Focus is on classroom climate, the atmosphere in which students must function Psychosocial management is influenced by Student factors Teacher factors Peer factors Family factors </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Procedural Dimension Refers to the rules and procedures that are part of the operating program of a classroom. Rules should be identified and taught during the early days in the first of the year. Immediate and consistent consequences for rule violation are essential. Teachers need to develop logical classroom procedures - the specific ways in which certain activities will performed or the way certain situations will be handled. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Physical Dimension Includes the aspects of the physical environment that teachers can manipulate to enhance the conditions for learning. Classroom arrangements refer to physical facets of the classroom including layout, storage, wall space, and signage. The issues of accessibility warrants special attention because of legal mandates, such as Section 504 Accessibility extends beyond physical accessibility, and also includes program accessibility. Specialized equipment (e.g., adaptive desks, wheelchairs) for students with disabilities is another area of concern. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Behavioral Dimensions: Major Areas of Concern Creating and Increasing Desirable Behaviors Decreasing Undesirable Behaviors Generalization and Maintenance Self-Management Behavior Intervention Plans </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Behavioral Dimension: Areas of Possible Emphasis When Developing Behavioral Programs (Etscheidt &amp; Barlett, 1999) Skill Training Behavior Management Plan Self-Management Peer Support Classwide Systems </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Creating and Increasing Desirable Behaviors Definition of reinforcer - any event that rewards and thus strengthens, the behavior it follows Positive reinforcers - present a desirable consequence for performance of an appropriate behavior Praise Physical contact Tangible items Activities Privileges </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Positive Reinforcement: Basic Principles The reinforcer must be meaningful to the student. The reinforcer must be contingent upon the proper performance of a desired behavior. The reinforcer must be presented immediately. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Contingency Contracting Contracts should state: What behaviors students are to complete or perform What consequences (reinforcement) the instructor will provide To be effective, contracts should: Initially reward imperfect approximations of the behavior Provide frequent reinforcement Reward accomplishments rather than obedience Be fair, clear, and positive </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Types of Group Contingencies Dependent Contingencies All group members share in the reinforcement if one individual achieves a goal Interdependent Contingencies All group members are reinforced if all collectively (or individually) achieve the stated goal Independent Contingencies Individuals within the group are reinforced for individual achievement toward a goal </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Decreasing Undesirable Behavior Natural consequences should be provided when the situation itself provides the contingencies for a certain behavior. Example: Student forgets permission slip for a field trip and is not allowed to go on the field trip. Logical consequences occur when there is a logical connection between inappropriate behavior and the consequences that follow. Example: Student forgets lunch money and has to borrow money in order to eat. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Positive Behavior Support Positive behavior support involves the assessment and reengineering of environments so people with problem behaviors experience reductions in these behaviors and increase the personal quality of their lives (Horner, 2000). Emphasizes changing the environment rather than just focusing on changing the behavior of individuals Utilizes functional behavioral assessment </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Differential Reinforcement of Lower Rates of Behavior (DRL) Uses positive reinforcement strategies as a behavior reduction tool Teacher provides appropriate reinforcement to students for displaying lower rates of a certain behavior that has been targeted for reduction Example: Good Behavior Game </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Extinction Procedures Definition: Teacher withholds reinforcement for a behavior Example: Teacher ignores misbehavior Suggestions Analyze what is reinforcing the undesirable behavior Understand that extinction is desirable because it does not involve punishment, but will take time to be effective Do not use with behaviors that require immediate intervention Recognize that withholding reinforcement is likely to result in an increase in undesirable behavior and may produce an aggressive response Provide reinforcements to students who demonstrate appropriate incompatible behaviors </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Benign Tactics (Cummings, 1983) Law of Least Intervention - eliminate disruptive behaviors quickly with a minimum of disruption to the classroom or instructional routine Examples include: Position yourself physically near students who are likely to create problems. Establish eye contact and maintain it with a student who is behaving inappropriately. Stop talking for a noticeable length of time to redirect student attention. Use humor to redirect inappropriate behavior. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Punishment Punishment is the presentation or the removal or something pleasant as a consequence for the performance of an undesirable behavior. Examples: Reprimands Time Out Response Cost Punishment is the least preferable option and use of these strategies should be done sparingly and with careful consideration. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Generalization and Maintenance Once behaviors have been established at acceptable levels, the next stages involve transferring what has been learned to new contexts (i.e., generalization) and maintaining established levels of performance (i.e., maintenance). Teachers need to program for both generalization and maintenance. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Self-Management Special attention needs to be given to students who do not display independent behavioral control. Self-regulated strategies are interventions that, though initially targeted by the teacher, are intended to be implemented independently by the student. Self-regulated strategies are an outgrowth of cognitive behavior modification, which combines cognitive strategies with behavioral techniques. </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Components of Self-Management Self-Regulation Self-Evaluation Self-Reinforcement Self-Instruction </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Behavior Intervention Plans Behavior intervention plans are mandated by the IDEA for students with disabilities who display seriously disruptive behaviors. Behavior intervention plans reflect a proactive response to these disruptive behaviors. This in contrast to traditional reactive approaches such as suspension/expulsion. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Instructional Dimension Refers to certain aspects of instruction that are closely related to sound organizational and management practices. These management practices include: Scheduling Transitions Grouping Lesson Planning Technology </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Organizational Dimension Refers to time management strategies related to: Personal Interactions The Work Environment Administrative Duties Instructional Applications Personal Applications </li> </ul>

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