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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Chapter 12Psychological Disorders

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007What are Psychological Disorders?

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007What are Psychological Disorders?Psychopathology Any pattern of emotions, behaviors, or thoughts inappropriate to the situation and leading to personal distress or the inability to achieve important goals.Also referred to as:Mental illnessMental disorderPsychological disorder

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007What are Psychological Disorders?Three classic signs suggest severe psychopathology: 1. Hallucinations-false sensory experiences that may suggest mental disorder.2. Delusions-persistent false beliefs.3. Severe affective disturbances-emotion or mood.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Medical Model The view that mental disorders are diseases that, like ordinary physical diseases, have objective physical causes and require specific treatments.Mental disorders are best treated with drug therapy.

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    The Cognitive-Behavioral ApproachBehavioral perspective Abnormal behaviors can be acquired through behavioral learning operant and classical conditioning.Cognitive perspective Abnormal behaviors are influenced by mental processes how people perceive themselves and their relations with others.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Social-Cognitive-Behavioral ApproachA psychological alternative to the medical model that views psychological disorder through a combination of the social, cognitive, and behavioral perspectives.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007DistressMaladaptivenessIrrationalityUnpredictabilityUnconventionality and undesirable behaviorIndicators of AbnormalityOther signs of a disorder are more subtle, and a diagnosis depends heavily on clinical judgment.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007How are PsychologicalDisorders Classified?

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Overview of DSM-IV DSM-IV Fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; the most widely accepted classification system in the United States.

    In multiaxial diagnosis, professionals look at the entire person, not just their abnormal behavior.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007DSM - IV

    Axis IClinical disordersAxis IIPersonality disorders andMental retardation Axis IIIGeneral medical conditions Axis IVPsychosocial and environmental factorsAxis VGlobal assessment of functioning

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Axis I Clinical Disorders

    Anxiety DisordersEating DisordersBipolar DisorderDepression SchizophreniaPhobiasADHDSubstance abuse

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Axis II Personality Disorders & Mental Retardation ParanoidAntisocial AvoidantBorderlineNarcissisticMR (mild, moderate, severe, profound)

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Axis III General Medical Conditions

    Infectious diseasesComplications of pregnancyDiabetesBrain injury PoisoningAlcohol cirrhosis

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Axis IV Psychosocial & Environmental Factors

    Legal difficultiesOccupational problemsEducational problemsEconomic problemsDivorceUnemploymentCrime

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)Measures patients overall levels of functioning.

    100 point scale

    GAF scale:- Plan treatment- Measure its impact- Predict outcomes

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Mood Disorders

    Major DepressionA condition lasting most of the day, day after day, with a loss of interest and pleasure and a lack of productive activity. Symptoms:-Trouble concentrating-Lack of appetite -Sleep abnormalities-Feelings of worthlessness

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Causes:Genetic predispositionBiological basis EnvironmentLow self-esteem Gender differencesCognitive aspects

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Mood DisordersSeasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)A condition in which people become seriously depressed in one season of the year; usually winter.

    Causes: Deprivation of sunlight

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Mood Disorders

    Bipolar DisorderA condition in which a person alternates between periods of depression and periods of mania (excessive elation or manic excitement).

    Causes: Genetic component

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Anxiety Disorders

    Mental problems characterized mainly by anxiety.

    Anxiety Disorders

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Anxiety DisordersGeneralized anxiety disorder Characterized by persistent and pervasive feelings of anxiety, without any external cause.Panic disorder Marked by panic attacks that have no connection to events in a persons present experience.Agoraphobia Fear of public places/open spaces.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Anxiety DisordersPhobias A group of anxiety disorders involving a pathological fear of a specific object or situation.Preparedness hypothesis Notion that we have an innate tendency, acquired through natural selection, to respond quickly and automatically to stimuli that posed a survival threat to our ancestors.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Anxiety DisordersObsessive-compulsive disorder Condition characterized by patterns of persistent, unwanted thoughts and behaviors. The 3 Cs

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Somatoform DisordersSomatoform disorders Psychological problems appearing in the form of bodily symptoms or physical complaints.

    Conversion disorder Somatoform disorder marked by paralysis, weakness, or loss of sensation, but with no discernable physical cause.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Somatoform DisordersHypochondriasis Somatoform disorder involving excessive concern about health and disease.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Dissociative amnesiaDissociative fugueDepersonalization disorderDissociative identity disorderDissociative DisordersDissociative disorders Group of pathologies involving fragmentation of the personality.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007A psychologically induced loss of memory for personal information.Dissociative amnesiaDissociative fugueDepersonalization disorderDissociative identity disorderDissociative Disorders

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Dissociative amnesia with the addition of flight from ones home, family, and job.Dissociative amnesiaDissociative fugueDepersonalization disorderDissociative identity disorderDissociative Disorders

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Abnormality involving the sensation of mind and body having separated.Dissociative amnesiaDissociative FugueDepersonalization disorderDissociative identity disorderDissociative Disorders

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Condition in which the individual displays multiple identities.Dissociative amnesiaDissociative FugueDepersonalization disorderDissociative identity disorderDissociative Disorders

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Eating DisordersAnorexia nervosa Eating disorder involving persistent loss of appetite that endangers an individuals health stemming from psychological reasons.Bulimia Eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purges, induced by vomiting or laxatives.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Schizophrenic DisordersSchizophrenia Psychotic disorder involving distortions in thoughts, perceptions, and/or emotions.HallucinationsDelusions

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Major Types of SchizophreniaDisorganizedCatatonicParanoidUndifferentiatedResidualPositiveNegative

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007DisorganizedCatatonicParanoidUndifferentiatedMajor Types of SchizophreniaFeatures incoherent speech, hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior.Residual Type

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007DisorganizedCatatonicParanoidUndifferentiatedMajor Types of SchizophreniaInvolves a spectrum of motor dysfunctions: catatonic stupor and catatonic excitement.Residual Type

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007DisorganizedCatatonicParanoidUndifferentiatedMajor Types of Schizo

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