copyright © allyn & bacon 2008 expressive culture (chapter 11)

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  • Slide 1
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Expressive Culture (Chapter 11)
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 The BIG Questions What is expressive culture? How is culture expressed through art? What do play and leisure activities reveal about culture? How is expressive culture changing in contemporary times?
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Expressive Culture Expressive culture is behavior and beliefs related to art, leisure, and play
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Art What is art? Art is the application of imagination, skill, and style to matter, movement, and sound that goes beyond purely the practical A wide variety of substances and activities can be considered art Beautifully prepared meal, stories, paintings, sculptures, dance, architecture, landscaping, tattooing, etc.
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Art All cultures have art and have a sense of what makes something art Ethno-esthetics refers to local cultural definitions of what art is Can get intra-cultural (within culture) variations in opinions of art e.g. Gender Men of Shipibo Indians of Peruvian Amazon liking abstract art while women find it ugly Male shamans take hallucenigenic drugs and may relate more to the abstract, psychedelic images than women Class
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Studying Art in Society Anthropologist who study art are interested in The products and characteristics of art in a society Who makes the art and why The role of art in society The wider social meaning of art
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Purpose of Making Art Art can have a variety of purposes depending on the context May socialize children into the culture May legitimize political leaders May be associated with a groups identity and sense of pride May serve as a form social control May serve as a catalyst for political resistance May be a form of self-expression May be a religious means through which individuals connect with the supernatural realm
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Purpose of Making Art May reinforce social relationships / gender relationships Male strip dancing May be a form of resistance Hip-hop, rap music Graffiti Protests economic oppression
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Focus on the Artist Add to the understanding of art by studying art from the artists perspective Look at the social status of the artist May be revered and wealthy or stigmatized and economically marginal May have gendered divisions among artists Geisha female Japanese art form May have a great deal of specialization and exclusiveness or little specialization and inclusiveness Foragers artistic activity is open to all, artistic products shared by all State-level societies may need a special kind of training to produce certain types of art, artistic products may only be available to those who can afford them
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 The Artist May be revered or stigmatized Native American male carvers were initiated into a secret society In foraging communities, artistic activity is open to all Often gender division exists
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Performance Arts Include music, dance, theater, rhetoric (speech-making), and narrative (storytelling) Ethnomusicology the cross-cultural study of music Are men and women equally encouraged to use certain instruments and repertoires? Is musical training available to all? Are the performances of men and women public, private, or both? Are women and men allowed to perform together? Do members of the culture give equal value to the performances of men and women?
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Performance Arts Theater is a type of enactment that seeks to entertain through movement and words There are often strong connections between myth, religion, ritual, and performance Performance arts often occur at ritual events feasts, special ceremonies, funerals, weddings May serve to both entertain and keep important cultural or religious knowledge alive
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Kathakali Theater (S. India) Blend of mythology, acting, and music Dramatizes great Hindu epics Features elaborate hand gestures, make-up, and costume Audience recognizes characters from their make-up Similar to European opera Zarrilli 1990
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 A new use for classical dance- drama in India is in neighborhood street theater that includes topics such as wife beating and dowry in the play
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Architecture Highly mobile foragers dwellings are the image of the family and not wider society Only take the family to build Pastoralists and horticulturalist have designed portable structures like the tepee Social status may be reflected in where the housing is located (e.g. chief in center) States show their power through the construction of impressive urban monuments Shows ability to mobilize enough labor to create them Architecture may reflect class differences and social rank
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Gardens Gardens for use, especially food production, are differentiated from gardens for decorative purposes Decorative gardens are a product of state-level societies Japanese gardens may contain no flowers Trees, shrubs, stones, water Traditional Muslim gardens are enclosed by four walls Traditionally flowers are not a prominent motif in African art, but cut flowers are important economic products in many parts of the world Contents of a personal garden makes a statement about its owners preferences, identity, and status
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Taj Mahal in Agra, India
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 A morning scene in the Netherlands. Dutch people buy on average 12 bouquets of cut flowers a year. But raising cut flowers and transporting them is highly energy intensive.
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Play and Leisure Play and leisure Have no direct, utilitarian purpose for the participant Play Has rules Contains chance Often contains tension Leisure activities Often lacks rules, chance, and tension
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Play, Leisure, and Culture Anthropologists think about why some play/leisure involves teams and others are individual activities social roles of people involved goals of the game and how they are achieved how much danger and violence is involved how activities relate to group identity how such activities link or separate different groups
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