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Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 9 Psychological Development This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images Any rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN: 0-131-73180-7 Slide 2 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology The study of how organisms change over time as the result of biological and environmental influences Slide 3 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 How Do Psychologists Explain Development? Development is a process of growth and change brought about by an interaction of heredity and the environment Slide 4 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Nature-Nurture Interaction Nature-nurture issue Long-standing discussion over relative importance of nature (heredity) and nurture (environment) in their influence on behavior and mental processes Slide 5 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Nature-Nurture Interaction Twin studies Developmental investigations in which twins, especially identical twins, are compared in the search for genetic and environmental effects Slide 6 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Nature-Nurture Interaction Identical twins A pair who started life as a single fertilized egg which later split into two distinct individuals Fraternal twins A pair who started life as two separate fertilized eggs that happened to share the same womb Slide 7 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Nature-Nurture Interaction Adoption studies Studies in which the adopted childs characteristics are compared to those of the biological family and the adoptive family Slide 8 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Gradual versus Abrupt Change Continuity view vs. Discontinuity view Age Performance Continuity view Discontinuity view Slide 9 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Gradual versus Abrupt Change Developmental stages Periods of life initiated by significant transitions or changes in physical or psychological functioning Slide 10 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Psychological Traits in Your Genes While psychological traits are formed by interaction of heredity and the environment, many traits have a strong genetic influence Slide 11 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Capabilities Does the Child Possess? Newborns have innate abilities for finding nourishment, interacting with others, and avoiding harmful situations; the developing abilities of infants and children rely on learning Slide 12 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Prenatal Development Prenatal period The developmental period before birth Zygote Embryo Fetus Placenta An organ that develops between the embryo/fetus and the mother Teratogens Toxic substances that can damage the developing organism Slide 13 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Neonatal Period (from birth to one month) Sensory abilities Motor abilities Postural reflex Grasping reflex Slide 14 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006Attachment The most important social construct an infant must develop is attachment (a bond with a caregiver). Lorenz discovered that some animals form attachment through imprinting. Slide 15 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Attachment Harry Harlow and his monkeys. Harry showed that monkeys needed touch to form attachment. Click the monkey to see a video of Harlows experiment. Slide 16 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Attachment Critical Periods: the optimal period shortly after birth when an organisms exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produce proper development. Those who are deprived of touch have trouble forming attachment when they are older. Click on the monkey to see what a baby monkey does when he HAS attachment and imagine what it is like when he does not (like above). Slide 17 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Types of Attachment Mary Ainsworths Strange Situation. Three types of attachment: 1.Secure 2.Avoidant 3.Anxious/ambivalent Click picture to see clip of Ainsworths experiment. Slide 18 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Infancy (from one month to about 18 months) Babies learn through classical conditioning Humans apparently have an inborn need for attachment Secure attachment Anxious-ambivalent attachment Avoidant attachment Slide 19 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Infancy (from one month to about 18 months) Maturation The unfolding of genetically programmed processes of growth and development over time Slide 20 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Birth Slide 21 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Responds to sound Becomes quiet when picked up Vocalizes occasionally Birth 1 mo. Slide 22 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Smiles socially Recognizes mother Rolls from side to back Lifts head and holds it erect and steady Birth1 mo. 2 mo. Slide 23 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Vocalizes to the smiles and talk of an adult Searches for source of sound Sits with support, head steady Birth1 mo.2 mo. 3 mo. Slide 24 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Gaze follows dangling ring, vanishing spoon, and ball moved across table Sits with slight support Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo. 4 mo. Slide 25 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Discriminates strangers from familiar persons Turns from back to side Makes distinctive vocalizations Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo.4 mo. 5 mo. Slide 26 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Lifts cup and bangs it Smiles at mirror image Reaches for small object Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo.4 mo.5 mo. 6 mo. Slide 27 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Makes playful responses to mirror Sits alone steadily Crawls Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo.4 mo.5 mo.6 mo. 7 mo. Slide 28 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Vocalizes up to four different syllables Listens selectively to familiar words Pulls to standing position Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo.4 mo.5 mo.6 mo. 7 mo. 8 mo. Slide 29 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo.4 mo.5 mo.6 mo. 7 mo.8 mo. 9 mo. Slide 30 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Plays pat-a-cake Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo.4 mo.5 mo.6 mo. 7 mo.8 mo.9 mo. 10 mo. Slide 31 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Stands alone Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo.4 mo.5 mo.6 mo. 7 mo.8 mo.9 mo.10 mo. 11 mo. Slide 32 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Walks alone Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo.4 mo.5 mo.6 mo. 7 mo.8 mo.9 mo.10 mo.11 mo. 1 year Slide 33 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Are the Developmental Tasks of Infancy and Childhood? Infants and children face especially important developmental tasks in the areas of cognition and social relationships tasks that lay a foundation for further growth in adolescence and adulthood Slide 34 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Cognitive Development Cognitive development The process by which thinking changes over time Schemas Mental structures or programs that guide a developing childs thoughts Slide 35 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Accommodation Mental process that restructures existing schemes so that new information is better understood Cognitive Development Assimilation Mental process that modifies new information to fit it into existing schemes Slide 36 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Cognitive Development It was thought that kids were just stupid versions of adults. Then came along Jean Piaget Kids learn differently than adults Slide 37 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006Schemas Children view the world through schemas (as do adults for the most part). Schemas are ways we interpret the world around us. It is basically what you picture in your head when you think of anything. Right now in your head, picture a model. These 3 probably fit into your concept (schema) of a model. But does this one? Slide 38 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Assimilation Incorporating new experiences into existing schemas. If I teach my 3 year that an animal with 4 legs and a tail is a dog. What would he call this? Or this? What schema would you assimilate this into? Slide 39 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Assimilation in High School When you first meet somebody, you will assimilate them into a schema that you already have. If you see two guys dressed like this, what schema would you assimilate them into? Would you always be right? Slide 40 Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2006 Accommodation Changing an existing schema to adopt to new information. If I tell someone from the mid-west to picture their schema of the Bronx they may talk about the ghetto areas. But if I showed them other areas o

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