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Understanding Special Education

Students with Autism Spectrum DisorderChapter 11Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images;any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders1Development of the FieldLeo Kanner, 1943, first described autismAsperger syndrome named for Hans AspergerEarly belief in refrigerator mothers1981 Lorna Wing distinguished autism and Asperger syndrome1990 autism category added to IDEA

Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders2Characteristics

Difficulty interacting with others, including lack of eye contactVerbal and nonverbal communication deficits including limited vocabulary, echolalia, echopraxia, and neologisms Rigid and restrictive behavioral repertoire and imaginative skillsRepetitive and stereotypic behaviorsReduced sensitivity to painCopyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education.All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum DisordersWhat Disorders are Included in Autism Spectrum Disorders?Autistic Disorder (Autism)Asperger SyndromePervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education.All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum DisordersWhat is the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders?1 in 88 children today are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders.Autism is the most rapidly growing disorderGreater awarenessImproved identificationAwareness that it exists across all IQ levels5:1 males to females have autism9:1 males to females have Asperger SyndromeCopyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education.All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum DisordersAutistic SavantDr. Bernard Rimland introduces terminologyAbout 10% of the population with autism have splintering skills in areas such as Mathematical calculationsMemory featsArtistic and musical abilitiesReading Hyperlexia ability to read without formal instructionCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum DisordersCommon CharacteristicsDifficulty relating to othersWide range of language and communication disordersInsistence on environmental samenessStereotypic, repetitive, self-stimulatory behaviorsCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders7Cognitive and Academic CharacteristicsCognitive abilities vary widely

Over-reliance on rote memory

Lacking a theory of mind

Problem solving challenges

Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders8(Figure 11.1)Example of a Visual Processing Task

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education.All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum DisordersSocial and Emotional CharacteristicsLanguage disordersProblems with communicative intentAsperger language problemsImmaturityCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders10Behavior CharacteristicsStimulus overselectivity

Self-stimulatory behaviors

Generalization difficulties

Sensory issues

Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders11AssessmentIntellectual75 % of individuals with autism have mental retardation; IQ norms between 35-50BehavioralBehavior screening examplesChildhood Autism Rating Scale; Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI)Functional behavior assessment Required by IDEAFunctional AssessmentMeasures skills needed for independent living

Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum DisordersCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2006

CausesBiologicalBrain-BasedEnvironmentalMay be inheritedAbnormalities in cerebellumControversy over immunizationHigher frequency of siblings with autismAbnormalities in frontal and temporal lobesNo single gene responsibleCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum DisordersCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2006Causation

Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders14Early Childhood EducationTypical Programs Often Include: Intervention prior to age 3 20 45 hours of intervention weekly Active family involvement Focus on communication and development Individualized interventionsCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders15What are Considerations for the Instructional Environment?Provide structure and routine.Eventually give child choices.Organize materials and areas of the room for specific skills to be taught.Help child prepare for transitions.Use visual schedules to predict and improve communication.Plan for peer/group work.Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education.All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum DisordersRecommended Educational PracticesEnvironmental supportsVisual supportsHome baseAssistive technologyInstructional practicesPriming - familiarize students with academic material ahead of timeDiscrete trial training (DDT) - highly specialized approach to teaching skillsPrompting - providing physical or verbal cues to specific behaviorsCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders17Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006InterventionsApplied Behavior Analysis (Lovaas)

Discrete Trial Training (DTT)

(1) Discriminative Stimulus (SD) - the trainer's command(2) the child's response(3) the consequence (reward)(4) a short pause between the consequence and the next instruction (between interval trials).

Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders18Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006InterventionsPsychological and Medical Services

Floor time (Greenspan)Sensory Perception Programs address issues of tactile defensiveness or extreme reaction to auditory stimulusMedications used to alleviate symptoms such as aggression, anxiety, or obsessive compulsive disorder, ADHD

Facilitated Communication (not effective)

Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders19Technology

Manual sign languagePECS: Picture Exchange Communication System

Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum DisordersSocial Skills SupportsInstruction in social skillsSocial storiesSOCCSSSituationOptionsConsequences

ChoicesStrategiesSimulationCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders21Planning for the Transition to AdulthoodTeach work skillsTeach self-help skillsTeach play, leisure and recreation skillsTeach social skillsTeach sex educationTeach home management skillsCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 12: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders22

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