Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Chapter 5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 This multimedia product and its contents.

Download Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Chapter 5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 This multimedia product and its contents.

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Slide 1 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Chapter 5 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Slide 2 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Early interventions focused on process interventions Perceptual-motor skills Later focus switched to instructional interventions Direct instruction of academic Slide 3 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Lists processing disorders that affect: Listening, thinking, speaking, reading, writing, spelling, and mathematics Includes some disorders Excludes other disorders Focuses on school tasks Slide 4 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Heterogeneous group of disorders Intrinsic to the individual and have a neurological basis Characterized by unexpected achievement Not the result of other disorders or problems but may occur with other disabilities Slide 5 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Largest disability category Fastest growing disability category since 1975 Prevalence highest for older students Prevalence higher for boys than girls Slide 6 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Chemical imbalance Brain injury Prenatal Perinatal Postnatal Heredity Slide 7 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Poor nutrition Adverse emotional climate at home Toxins or severe allergies Poor teaching Lack of stimulation Poverty Poor instruction Slide 8 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Average or above average intelligence Weaknesses in one or more areas: Attention Perception Memory Thinking/processing Slide 9 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Slide 10 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Bell Curve Slide 11 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Slide 12 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Slide 13 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Deficits in: Reading Written language Mathematics Oral language Slide 14 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Slide 15 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Reading comprehension Cannot recall facts, sequences, or main themes Word recognition errors Omissions, insertions, substitutions, reversals Oral reading Insecurity, loses place Word analysis skills Phonological awareness difficulties, dyslexia Slide 16 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Aphasia is an impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Brocas area (impaired speaking) or to Wernickes area (impaired understanding). Slide 17 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Computation skills Word problems Spatial relationships Writing or copying shapes Telling time Understanding fractions/decimals Measuring Slide 18 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Spelling Omission or substitution of letters Auditory memory and discrimination difficulties Handwriting Absence of fine motor skills Lack of understanding of spatial relationships Composition Sentence structure Paragraph organization Complexity of stories Slide 19 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Short-term memory Recalling in correct order, of either aurally or visually presented information shortly after hearing or seeing the items Working memory Retaining information while simultaneously engaging in another cognitive activity Success in reading and math depend on this ability Crucial for word recognition and reading comprehension Slide 20 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Lack of awareness of strategies and resources needed to perform effectively Inability to monitor, evaluate, and adjust performance to ensure successful task completion Slide 21 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Students may attribute success to situations beyond their control such as luck rather than to their own efforts Chronic failure makes success seem unattainable Learned helplessness (Seligman) Passive learners Deficits in strategic learning behaviors Slide 22 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Problems with: Social perception Social competence Nonverbal learning disabilities Motivation Slide 23 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Types of Behavior Problems Out-of-seat behavior Talk-outs Physical or verbal aggression Problems may be caused by: Communication difficulties Frustration with academics Attention difficulties or hyperactivity Slide 24 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Formal Assessments Norm-referenced intelligence and achievement tests Criterion-referenced tests Classroom Assessments Curriculum-based measurement Portfolio assessment Observations Slide 25 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Does a significant gap exist between the students ability and academic achievement? Is the learning problem the result of a disorder in an area of basic psychological processing involved in understanding language? Can other possible causes of the learning problem be eliminated? Slide 26 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Permitted, not required by IDEA 2004 Three-Tiered Model All students participate in tier 1, and educators use proven instructional methods Students who dont succeed in tier 1 receive supplemental instruction Students who dont succeed in tier 2 receive more intensive interventions Slide 27 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Is the student still exhibiting significant gaps in learning even though research-based, individually designed, systematically delivered, and increasingly intensive interventions have been provided? If the team decides that a student is nonresponsive to intervention, the team may decide the student has a learning disability. Slide 28 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Slide 29 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Higher student self-confidence, higher expectations, improved academic progress (Ritter, Michel, & Irby, 1999) Higher grades, comparable scores on achievement tests, better attendance (Rea, McLaughlin, & Walther-Thomas, 2002) Better social outcomes when students attend regular education classes part-time rather than full-time (Vaughn & colleagues) Slide 30 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities High dropout rate Less postsecondary education Part-time employment Lower occupational status Lower wages Slide 31 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Include career awareness and exploration Teach problem-solving, organization, self- advocacy, and communication skills Work experiences are valuable Linkages between students and community services Teach students self-advocacy skills Slide 32 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Strategy instruction Techniques, principles, and rules that guide students to complete tasks independently mnemonics Direct instruction Slide 33 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Well-organized, sequenced lessons Short review of previously learned skills Clear statement of lesson goals Presentation of new material in small steps Frequent opportunities for practice Questions to check for understanding Slide 34 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Parents are often actively involved in their childs education Good school-home collaboration is vital Parent participation may be affected by cultural variables Slide 35 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Should there be an alternative approach to identifying students as LD? Should students be identified as LD for the first time in high school or college? Slide 36 Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008Chapter 5: Students with Learning Disabilities Many issues related to the use of response as a method of identifying students as learning disabled. Should students be identified as LD for the first time in high school or college?

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