(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter Nine Teaching Students with Sensory Impairments This multimedia product and its contents

Download (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter Nine Teaching Students with Sensory Impairments This multimedia product and its contents

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter Nine Teaching Students with Sensory Impairments This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Introduction There remains some debate regarding the best setting in which to provide services for students with sensory impairments. Historically, many students with sensory impairments were served in residential facilities. Today, many students with sensory impairments are served in general education classrooms. Most students with sensory impairments are capable of handling the academic and social demands of general education classroom settings. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Accommodations For students with sensory impairments, a variety of academic accommodations may be needed such as: Seating adjustments Sophisticated equipment for listening, communicating, or navigating Support of additional personnel </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Low-Incidence Disabilities Sensory impairments are considered low-incidence disabilities since there are not large numbers of these students in the school population. These students represent a very small percentage of all students who are disabled. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Basic Concepts About Hearing Impairments (HI) HI is a hidden disability. However, when communicative skills are needed, hearing limitations become evident. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Placements Relatively few students with profound hearing loss (deafness) are educated in general education settings. When these students are in general education settings, they need major accommodations. More students with mild to moderate hearing impairments are educated in general education settings. These students can function more easily in these settings. Students with minimal hearing loss do not qualify for special education. These students are at a distinct disadvantage if the teacher does not provide recognize and accommodate their problems. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Impact of Hearing Loss on Language Acquisition The relationship of hearing loss to language acquisition is very important for teachers to understand. This means that language is a dominant consideration when discussing appropriate education for students with hearing losses. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Hearing impairment is the generic term used to cover the entire range of hearing loss. Deafness describes a person with a hearing loss that is so severe that speech cannot be understood through the ear alone, with or without aids. Hard of hearing describes individuals who have a hearing loss that makes it difficult, if not impossible, to understand speech through the ear alone, with or without a hearing aid. Hearing Impairments Defined </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Hearing loss is often measured in decibel (dB). Individuals with losses from 25 to 90 dB are considered hard of hearing. Individuals with losses greater than 90 dB are classified as deaf. How Hearing Loss is Measured </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 IDEA Definition Deafness means a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a childs education performance. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 IDEA Definition Hearing impairment means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a childs educational performance, but that is not included under the definition of deafness in this section. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Definition of Minimal Hearing Loss Minimal hearing loss, which is not included in the federal definition of hearing impairment. This condition, however, can cause problems for students. Minimal hearing loss is defined as a loss of hearing between 16 and 25 dB. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Classification of HI Conductive Hearing Loss (mild loss in both ears) Unilateral Hearing Loss (loss only in one ear) Mild Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss (caused by sound not being transmitted to the brain Moderate-to-Severe Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss (more severe loss in both ears) </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Prevalence of HI About 0.11% of students with hearing impairments are served in special education. Despite this small number, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have estimated that as many as 15% of all children experience some degree of hearing loss. This includes those children with minimal hearing loss that does not result in eligibility for special services. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Causes of HI There are many causes of hearing Impairments. These include: genetic causes developmental anomalies toxic reaction to drugs infections prematurity Rh incompatibility birth trauma allergies </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Characteristics of HI Psychological Communicational Academic Social-Emotional </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Indicators of HI Fidgeting or moving about in seat Is easily distracted by visual or auditory stimuli Does not respond when spoken to Has a restricted vocabulary Has difficulty following directions Pulling or pressing on ear Has a confused expression on face Appears inattentive and daydreams Uses a loud voice when speaking Withdraws from classroom activities that involve listening Has frequent colds, earaches, or infections Asks for information to be repeated frequently Misarticulates certain speech sounds or omits certain consonant sounds Gives incorrect answers to questions Turns head to position of speaker </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Formal Assessments The assessment of hearing ability requires the use of various audiological techniques including: Pure-tone audiometry tests Bone conduction hearing tests </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Informal Assessment Teachers and school personnel should engage in informal assessment of students suspected of having a hearing impairment. Informal assessment typically focuses on observing students for signs that might indicate a hearing loss. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Realities of the General Education Classroom Students with HI vary greatly in their need for supports in the general education classroom. Students with mild losses typically need minimal supports. Students with severe hearing impairments typically require specialized instructional techniques such as: Alternative communication methods Use of interpreters </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Continuum-of-Placement Options Placement of students with HI ranges from general education classrooms to residential schools for the deaf. The topic of educational placement has been the most controversial aspect of educating students with HI. The placement decision for students with HI should be based on the unique needs of the student and the IEP process. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Placement Trends The trend is towards educating more students with HI in general education classrooms. During the 1998-1999 school year: almost 60% of all students with HI were educated in general education classrooms for at least 40% of the school day. fewer than 10% of students with HI were educated in residential settings. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Standard Operating Procedures Students with HI should be required to follow the same rules, routines, and procedures expected of other students. Some procedures may have to be modified to accommodate special needs. Example: Students may need to be allowed to leave their seats to get the attention of a student who cannot hear a spoken communication. Example: Teacher may want to establish a buddy system in which a student with normal hearing is assigned to assist the student with a hearing impairment (e.g., taking notes, notifying of fire drill). </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Physical Considerations Seating is a major consideration. Teachers need to ensure that students are seated to maximize the use of their residual hearing and/or to have an unobstructed view of an interpreter. Students with HI need to be seated so that they can take advantage of all visual cues. Teachers should seat students who use interpreters so that they can easily see the interpreter, the teacher, and any visuals that are used. </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Teaching Tips Seat student in the best place to facilitate attending and participating. Seat students in a semicircular arrangement to increase sight lines for students and teacher. Position teacher so that the student can read lips. Position teacher so that he or she faces students when talking. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Creating a Favorable Environment Attention must be given to creating a supportive acoustical environment throughout the classroom. Acoustical modifications include: Acoustical ceiling tiles Carpeting Thick curtains Rubber tips on chair and table legs Proper maintenance of ventilation systems, lighting, doors, and windows </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Preinstructional Considerations Use homework assignment books and make sure students understand their assignments. Use cooperative learning arrangements to facilitate student involvement. Reduce distractions and competing noise by modifying the classroom environment. Include a section of the lesson plan for special provisions for students with HI. Ensure that adequate lighting is available. Let students use swivel chairs. Acquire or develop visually-oriented materials to augment orally presented topics. Provide visual reminders indicating the amount of time left for an activity or the end of class. Allow students to move about the room to position themselves for participation in ongoing events. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Communication Strategies The most challenging aspect of teaching students whose hearing is impaired is making sure that: they participate in communicational activities that are occurring in the classroom. they are able to handle the reading and writing demands of the classroom. </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Communication Strategies Students who have profound hearing loss must rely on alternative means of communication such as sign language or lip reading. Teachers need to remember that sign language does not follow the grammatical conventions of English. </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Communication Strategies Students may use some form of manual communication such as American Sign Language (ASL). Teachers are not required to learn this language. Teachers should make an effort to know some of the more common signs and to be able to finger-spell the letters of the alphabet as well as numbers one to ten. If students can communicate only by using sign language, an interpreter will most likely need to be present. Teachers should know basic information about the roles and functions of an interpreter. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Communication Strategies Another form of communication that may be effective is cued speech. Cued speech is a system of hand cues that enhances lip-reading. Eight different handshapes represent consonant sounds and four hand positions represent vowel sounds. By using the signs near the lips, students have cues that help with their lip-reading. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Tips for Delivery of Instruction Make sure students are attending. Provide short, clear instructions. Speak clearly and normally; do not exaggerate the pronunciation of words. Keep your face visible to students. Avoid frequent movements around the classroom, turning your back on students while talking, and standing in front of a bright light source. Use gestures and facial expressions. </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Tips for Delivery of Instruction If the student reads speech, make sure that your mustache and beard are trimmed to maximize visibility. Maintain eye contact with the student, not the interpreter. Encourage students to request clarification and to ask questions. Check with students to confirm that they are understanding what is being discussed or presented. Identify other speakers by name so that students can more easily follow a discussion among more than one speaker. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Tips for Delivery of Instruction Repeat the comments of other students who speak. Paraphrase or summarize discussions at the end of a class session. Write information when necessary. Have students take responsibility for making themselves understood. Provide students with advance organizers such as outlines of lectures and copies of overhead transparences. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Tips for Delivery of Instruction Provide summaries, outlines, or scripts of videotapes, videodiscs, or films. Let students use microcomputers for word processing and for checking their spelling and grammar. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> (c) Allyn &amp; Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Tips for Addressing Social-Emotional Needs Prepa...</li></ul>

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