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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter Nine Teaching Students with Sensory Impairments This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Introduction There remains some debate regarding the best setting in which to provide services for students with sensory impairments. Historically, many students with sensory impairments were served in residential facilities. Today, many students with sensory impairments are served in general education classrooms. Most students with sensory impairments are capable of handling the academic and social demands of general education classroom settings.
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Accommodations For students with sensory impairments, a variety of academic accommodations may be needed such as: Seating adjustments Sophisticated equipment for listening, communicating, or navigating Support of additional personnel
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Low-Incidence Disabilities Sensory impairments are considered low-incidence disabilities since there are not large numbers of these students in the school population. These students represent a very small percentage of all students who are disabled.
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Basic Concepts About Hearing Impairments (HI) HI is a hidden disability. However, when communicative skills are needed, hearing limitations become evident.
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Placements Relatively few students with profound hearing loss (deafness) are educated in general education settings. When these students are in general education settings, they need major accommodations. More students with mild to moderate hearing impairments are educated in general education settings. These students can function more easily in these settings. Students with minimal hearing loss do not qualify for special education. These students are at a distinct disadvantage if the teacher does not provide recognize and accommodate their problems.
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Impact of Hearing Loss on Language Acquisition The relationship of hearing loss to language acquisition is very important for teachers to understand. This means that language is a dominant consideration when discussing appropriate education for students with hearing losses.
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Hearing impairment is the generic term used to cover the entire range of hearing loss. Deafness describes a person with a hearing loss that is so severe that speech cannot be understood through the ear alone, with or without aids. Hard of hearing describes individuals who have a hearing loss that makes it difficult, if not impossible, to understand speech through the ear alone, with or without a hearing aid. Hearing Impairments Defined
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Hearing loss is often measured in decibel (dB). Individuals with losses from 25 to 90 dB are considered hard of hearing. Individuals with losses greater than 90 dB are classified as deaf. How Hearing Loss is Measured
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 IDEA Definition Deafness means a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a childs education performance.
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 IDEA Definition Hearing impairment means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a childs educational performance, but that is not included under the definition of deafness in this section.
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Definition of Minimal Hearing Loss Minimal hearing loss, which is not included in the federal definition of hearing impairment. This condition, however, can cause problems for students. Minimal hearing loss is defined as a loss of hearing between 16 and 25 dB.
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Classification of HI Conductive Hearing Loss (mild loss in both ears) Unilateral Hearing Loss (loss only in one ear) Mild Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss (caused by sound not being transmitted to the brain Moderate-to-Severe Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss (more severe loss in both ears)
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Prevalence of HI About 0.11% of students with hearing impairments are served in special education. Despite this small number, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have estimated that as many as 15% of all children experience some degree of hearing loss. This includes those children with minimal hearing loss that does not result in eligibility for special services.
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Causes of HI There are many causes of hearing Impairments. These include: genetic causes developmental anomalies toxic reaction to drugs infections prematurity Rh incompatibility birth trauma allergies
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Characteristics of HI Psychological Communicational Academic Social-Emotional
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Indicators of HI Fidgeting or moving about in seat Is easily distracted by visual or auditory stimuli Does not respond when spoken to Has a restricted vocabulary Has difficulty following directions Pulling or pressing on ear Has a confused expression on face Appears inattentive and daydreams Uses a loud voice when speaking Withdraws from classroom activities that involve listening Has frequent colds, earaches, or infections Asks for information to be repeated frequently Misarticulates certain speech sounds or omits certain consonant sounds Gives incorrect answers to questions Turns head to position of speaker
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Formal Assessments The assessment of hearing ability requires the use of various audiological techniques including: Pure-tone audiometry tests Bone conduction hearing tests
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Informal Assessment Teachers and school personnel should engage in informal assessment of students suspected of having a hearing impairment. Informal assessment typically focuses on observing students for signs that might indicate a hearing loss.
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Realities of the General Education Classroom Students with HI vary greatly in their need for supports in the general education classroom. Students with mild losses typically need minimal supports. Students with severe hearing impairments typically require specialized instructional techniques such as: Alternative communication methods Use of interpreters
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Continuum-of-Placement Options Placement of students with HI ranges from general education classrooms to residential schools for the deaf. The topic of educational placement has been the most controversial aspect of educating students with HI. The placement decision for students with HI should be based on the unique needs of the student and the IEP process.
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Placement Trends The trend is towards educating more students with HI in general education classrooms. During the 1998-1999 school year: almost 60% of all students with HI were educated in general education classrooms for at least 40% of the school day. fewer than 10% of students with HI were educated in residential settings.
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Standard Operating Procedures Students with HI should be required to follow the same rules, routines, and procedures expected of other students. Some procedures may have to be modified to accommodate special needs. Example: Students may need to be allowed to leave their seats to get the attention of a student who cannot hear a spoken communication. Example: Teacher may want to establish a buddy system in which a student with normal hearing is assigned to assist the student with a hearing impairment (e.g., taking notes, notifying of fire drill).
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  • (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2004 Physical Considerations Seating is a major consideration. Teachers need to ensure that students are seated to maximize the use of their residual hearing and/or to have an unobstructed view of an interpreter

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