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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Big Bang Theory

    Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 LearningA process through which experience produces lasting change in behavior or mental processes

    A permanent change in behavior based on experience

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Behaviorist

    Believe infants are born with only three instinctive responses

    1. Fear 2. Rage 3. Love

    All others behaviors are developed during life through learning

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Power of ReinforcementPositive Reinforcement Stimulus presented after a response that increases the probability of that response happening againNegative Reinforcement Removal of an unpleasant stimulus, contingent on a particular behavior

    Every time Madge raises her hand in class she is called on. She raised her hand 3 time during the first class, 3 times in the second and 4 times during the last class.A child is allowed to skip a required chore if homework is finished by a certain time.

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  • Positive Reinforcement

    Something pleasant is presentedNegative Reinforcement

    Something unpleasant is removed

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Positive ReinforcementGiving a treat to a dog when it sits(If this results in an increase in the future behavior of the dog sitting). Negative ReinforcementTurning off an annoying song when a child asks their parent and says Please(If this results in an increase in the asking behavior of the child).

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

    Watch videoAlfie Kohn vs Dwight Schrute on Youtube

  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Skinner BoxAn Operant ChamberThe Skinner BoxA testing device programmed to deliver reinforcers and punishers dependent upon an animals behavior

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

    Watch videoSkinner Box - Lever Press on Youtube

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Skinners Air CribIt was designed to make the early childcare more simple (by greatly reducing laundry, diaper rash, cradle cap, etc.), while encouraging the baby to be more confident, mobile, comfortable, healthy and less prone to cry.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Primary ReinforcersReinforcers that have an innate basis because of their biological value to an organism

    Food SleepSexAir Water

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Secondary Reinforcers Stimuli that acquire their reinforcing power by their learned association with primary reinforcers MoneyAwardsPraise GradesSuccessPowerVirtually any stimulus can become a secondary reinforcer

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Premack Principle The concept that a preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less preferred one Example: A teacher lets kids run around (preferred activity) to reinforce a less preferred one (sitting still and listening)

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007ReinforcementContinuous ReinforcementA reinforcement schedule in which all correct responses are reinforced

    Possible Problems:1. Correct responses can be missed, causing confusion2. Typically loses its reinforcing quality

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Intermittent (or Partial) Reinforcement A reinforcement schedule in which some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced

    Resistant to extinction Reinforcement

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007How does this differ from extinction in classical conditioning?ReinforcementExtinction In operant conditioning, a process by which a response that has been learned is weakened by the absence or removal of reinforcement

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007ExtinctionOperant ConditioningA learned response is weakened by the removal or absence of reinforcement A. If a child has learned that if it cries it will get a toy, withhold the toyB. A child cries for attention, simply ignore the child until the crying stops

    Classical ConditioningThe CR (dog salivating) is eliminated by repeated presentations of the CS (bell/tone) without the UCS (food)

    A reversal of a learned response by withholding the UCS

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007ShapingTechnique where responses similar to desired response are reinforced

    Example: Getting a scared child to slide down a high slideBegin at the bottom, and gradually go higher up the slide with each turn until the child is at the top.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Behavior ModificationExtinguish an undesirable behavior by removing the reinforcer and replace it with a desirable behavior by reinforcement.

    Example: Quit smoking --- chew gum --- save $

    It has been used on all sorts of psychological problems -- addictions, neuroses, shyness, autism, even schizophrenia -- and works particularly well with children.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Schedules of Reinforcement1. Ratio Schedules Provide a reward after a certain number of responses (Ratio = number)2. Interval Schedules Provide reward after a certain time intervalFixed Ratio (FR)Fixed Interval (FI)Variable Ratio (VR)Variable Interval (VI)

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Schedules of ReinforcementFixed Ratio (FR)Fixed Interval (FI)Variable Ratio (VR)Variable Interval (VI)Rewards appear after a certain set number of responsesExample: A factory workers gets paid after every 10 cases of a product are completed

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Schedules of ReinforcementFixed Ratio (FR)Fixed Interval (FI)Variable Ratio (VR)Variable Interval (VI)The number of responses for a reward (reinforcement) variesExample: Telemarketers never know how many calls it takes to make a saleslot machine pay-offs

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Schedules of ReinforcementFixed Ratio (FR)Fixed Interval (FI)Variable Ratio (VR)Variable Interval (VI)Time period between rewards remains constant Example: Weekly paycheckQuarterly school grades

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Schedules of ReinforcementFixed Ratio (FR)Fixed Interval (FI)Variable Ratio (VR)Variable Interval (VI)Rewards appear after a certain amount of time, but that amount variesExample: Random visits from the boss who delivers praiseFishing

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Problem of PunishmentPunishment An aversive consequence used to weaken the behavior that follows

    How does this differ from negative reinforcement?

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Punishment vs. Negative ReinforcementLoud NoisePress LeverPress LeverLoud Noise RemovedLoud Noise AppliedNegative ReinforcementPunishmentNo Noise

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Two Types of Punishment1. Positive Punishment The application of an aversive stimulus after a response

    Touching a hot stove will likely reduce the chance of it happening again

    Washing your mouth out with soap for swearing

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Two Types of Punishment2. Negative Punishment (Omission Training) The removal of an reinforcer/stimulus after a response

    Taking the car keys from a misbehaving teen

    A child who talks back may not be allowed to watch its favorite cartoon

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Four Kinds of ConsequencesSTIMULUS

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Why Punishment Doesnt Work1.The power of punishment usually disappears when threat of punishment is removed

    Punishment2. often triggers aggression or escape 3. may increase apprehension in the learner, inhibiting the learning new and better responses4. is often unfair and applied unequally

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007When Does Punishment Work?

    It must be immediateIt must be certain and consistent It should be limited in duration and intensityShould be clearly target the behavior, not the personLimited to the situation in which the response occurred Should not send mixed messages (I can hit you but you cant hit othersNegative punishment is the most effective

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Alternatives to PunishmentExtinctionReinforcing preferred activitiesThe Premack PrinciplePrompting and shaping

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