copyright © allyn & bacon 2008 anthropology and the study of culture (miller chapter 1)

Download Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Anthropology and the Study of Culture (Miller Chapter 1)

Post on 16-Dec-2015

215 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Slide 1
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Anthropology and the Study of Culture (Miller Chapter 1)
  • Slide 2
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 The BIG Questions What is anthropology? What are the goals of anthropology? What are the fields of anthropology? What are some key aspects of anthropology? How is anthropology relevant to a career in the real world? How can anthropology be applied?
  • Slide 3
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 What is Anthropology? What do you know about anthropology? What do you think of when someone mentions anthropology? How did you acquire these impressions? What do you think anthropology is?
  • Slide 4
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 What is Anthropology? Anthropology is The study of humanity, including our prehistoric origins and contemporary human diversity (p. 4) The study of humankind in all times and all places
  • Slide 5
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Goals of Anthropology What do you think are the main goals of anthropology? Why is anthropology important?
  • Slide 6
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Goals of Anthropology Discover what makes people different from one another Study diversity and preserve diversity Discover what all people have in common Study commonalities in all humanity Understand more about human nature Look at our own culture more objectively, like an outsider Make the strange familiar and the familiar strange Produce new knowledge and new theories about humankind and human behavior Apply this knowledge in an attempt to alleviate human challenges
  • Slide 7
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 The Fields of Anthropology What are the fields of anthropology? (hint: there are four of them!)
  • Slide 8
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 The Fields of Anthropology Archaeology (or prehistory) Biological (or physical) anthropology Linguistic anthropology Cultural anthropology (or social anthropology)
  • Slide 9
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 The Fields of Anthropology Four fields (p. 4) Biological anthropology Also known as physical anthropology Archaeology Linguistic Anthropology Cultural anthropology Also known as social anthropology or sociocultural anthropology
  • Slide 10
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Biological Anthropology The study of humans as biological organisms, including their evolution and contemporary variation (p. 4 5) Some subfields of biological anthropology include Paleoanthropology (Human evolution) Leakey family Primatology (Nonhuman primates) Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey Examine what we share with our primate relatives as well as what makes humans unique Contemporary human variation and adaptation Molecular/genetic anthropology Forensic anthropology (application to legal issues) Bones, Dr. Temperance Brennan inspired by real-life forensic anthropologist Kathy Reichs
  • Slide 11
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Archaeology Study of past human cultures through their material remains (p. 4 6) Study of past human cultures through the recovery and analysis of artifacts Some subfields of archaeology include Old World archaeology Africa, Europe, and Asia New World archaeology North, Central, and South America Underwater archaeology Settlements now submerged by water Prehistorical archaeology Before written records Historical archaeology Have written documents Garbage project Tucson and New York - consumption and environmental effects More beers Paper more of a problem than initially thought
  • Slide 12
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Linguistic Anthropology Study of communication, mainly (but not exclusively) among humans Includes the study of communications origins, history, and contemporary variation (p. 4 & 6) Some subfields of linguistic anthropology include Historical linguistics The study of language change over time and how languages are related Structural (descriptive) linguistics The study of the formal structure of languages and their similarities and differences Sociolinguistics The study of communication in social life (analysis of discourse) and the variations of communication in different cultural contexts
  • Slide 13
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Cultural Anthropology Study of living people and their cultures, including variation and change (p. 4 & 6 7) Some subfields of cultural anthropology include Economic anthropology How people in different cultures make a living Political anthropology Study of social groups, politics, power Psychological anthropology Study of interaction between culture and the human mind Medical anthropology Study of interaction between culture and health Development anthropology Making development projects more socially sensitive and culturally appropriate Cultural anthropologists also study art, religion, migration, marriage, familyand MORE
  • Slide 14
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Research Approaches in the Four Fields Anthropology has been called the most humane of the sciences and the most scientific of the humanities Wide range of approaches that span: Science (hypothesis, observation, and testing) Humanities (more subjective, based on feeling) Anthropology as a social science is empirical based on observations rather than on intuition or faith Fieldwork (being on location and fully immersed in another way of life) is a core methodological aspect of anthropology
  • Slide 15
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Some Key Aspects of Anthropology Holistic perspective Holism the view that cultures are complex systems and one must study all their interconnected aspects in order to understand the whole culture (p. 10) Must study social, political, economic, and religious practices and institutions in order to understand the whole culture Cross-cultural, comparative perspective Ethnology the study of a particular topic (such as marriage forms, religious beliefs, etc.) in more than one culture (p. 19)
  • Slide 16
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Some Key Aspects of Anthropology (continued) Takes a long-term perspective Relies on extensive fieldwork Participant observation or ethnographic research May result in an ethnography an in-depth description of a culture based on firsthand (primary) research (p. 19) Traditionally focuses on the poor, powerless, everyday Joe versus elite people Traditionally has studied small, remote communities, often in rural areas
  • Slide 17
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Ethnography and Ethnology Summary ETHNOGRAPHY means culture writing provides a first-hand, detailed description of a living culture based on first-hand fieldwork and research of one culture ETHNOLOGY the study of one topic in more than one culture marriage forms, economic practices, religion, etc. comparative and cross-cultural uses ethnographic material collected by a number of researchers
  • Slide 18
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Some Key Aspects of Anthropology Focus on cultural relativism rather than ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism is judging other cultures by the standards of ones own culture rather than the standards of other cultures The belief that ones own culture is the way of life and that other ways of life are strange and inferior
  • Slide 19
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Some Key Aspects of Anthropology Focus on cultural relativism rather than ethnocentrism Cultural relativism is the belief that each culture must be understood in terms of its own values and beliefs and not by the standards of another culture Is the opposite of ethnocentrism The belief that no culture is better than any other culture Is gained by exposure to other ways with a sympathetic eye and ear to appreciating differences
  • Slide 20
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Some Key Aspects of Anthropology Absolute cultural relativism versus critical cultural relativism Absolute cultural relativism says that whatever goes on in a particular culture must not be questioned or change because it would be ethnocentric to question any behavior or idea anywhere. Any Star Trek fans? What is the Prime Directive? No one shall interfere with the culture/cultural evolution of another planet under any conditions What are some challenges of absolute cultural relativism?
  • Slide 21
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Some Key Aspects of Anthropology Critical cultural relativism is an alternative to absolute cultural relativism Critical cultural relativism says that some of what goes on in a particular culture can be questioned or changed because of an idea of a set of universal human rights. Star Trek fans, was the Prime Directive ever broken/bent? Under what conditions? What are some challenges of critical cultural relativism?
  • Slide 22
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Absolute vs. Critical Cultural Relativism Star Trek Prime Directive Prime Directive Debate - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mH- L6UCCAE
  • Slide 23
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Absolute vs. Critical Cultural Relativism What role does any concept of fate play in our decisions? What role do emotions and should emotions play in determining action within a different culture? When is it acceptable for a person to interfere or not interfere in the affairs of another culture? Genocide? Enslavement? Disease/epidemic? Natural dis

Recommended

View more >