Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 3 Biopsychology and the Foundations of Neuroscience This multimedia product and its contents are protected under.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Chapter 3 Biopsychology and the Foundations of Neuroscience This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images Any rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN: 0-131-73180-7 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Some Brain Facts It is about the size of grapefruit 3 pounds, pinkish-gray, wrinkled surface 100 billion nerve cells, sometimes with up to 10,000 connections to other cells At birth the brain has extra nerve cells that die off; by adolescence that stabilizes and the total number is constant later on There is some loss and gain through adulthood, but by age 70 we end up with over 98% </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 What is Biopsychology? Biopsychology The specialty in psychology that studies the interaction of biology, behavior, and the environment Neuroscience Interdisciplinary field that focuses on the brain and its role in psychological processes </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Evolution has fundamentally shaped psychological processes because it favors genetic variations that produce adaptive behavior How Are Genes and Behavior Linked? </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 How Are Genes and Behavior Linked? Innate Inborn; present at birth; part of the organisms biological heritage Evolution The gradual process of biological change that occurs in a species as it adapts to its environment </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Evolution and Natural Selection Natural selection The driving force behind evolution, by which the environment selects the fittest organisms </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 How Natural Selection Works Environmental pressure (changes in the environment) Competition (for resources) Selection of fittest phenotype (from among a variety of phenotypes) Reproductive success (genotype corresponding to fittest phenotypes passed to next generation) Frequency of that genotype increases (in next generation) </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Genes and Inheritance Genotype An organisms genetic makeup Phenotype An organisms observable physical characteristics </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Genes and Inheritance Mutations Genetic variations, which occur randomly, especially during the recombination of chromosomes in sexual reproduction </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) A long, complex molecule that encodes genetic characteristics Genes (they are like words in a sentence) The functional units of a chromosome Composed of nucleotidesthey are like the letters in words (A,G,T,C) </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Sex chromosomes The X and Y chromosomes that determine our physical sex characteristics Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA Chromosomes (like a string of words; they include punctuation and timing) Tightly coiled threadlike structures along which the genes are organized </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Genetic Explanations for Psychological Processes Genes influence our psychological characteristics as well as our physical traitsthe complete package of human genes=30,000 There are 46 chromosomes; 23 pairs Multiple genes contribute to schizophrenia, Alzheimers disease; an extra chromosome 21 results in Down syndrome </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 The bodys two communication systems, the nervous system and the endocrine system, both use chemical messengers to communicate with targets throughout the body How Does the Body Communicate Internally? </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 The Neuron Types of Neurons Sensory neuronsafferent--(carry messages from sense receptors towards the CNS) Motor neuronsefferent--(carry messages from CNS toward muscles and glands) Interneurons (carry messages between nerve cells) </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 The Structure of a Neuron </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 The Neural Impulse Neural impulse Brief electric surge that carries the neurons message Ions Charged particles that are moved across the cell membrane </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 The Neural Impulse Resting potentialnegativewhen the cell is inactive and ready to fire Action potentialimpulse caused in a fraction of second when the charge changes from negative to positivethis is done in an all or none manner Synapsegap between neurons or neurons and muscles/glands Synaptic transmissionrelaying information across the synapse by use of chemical neurotransmitters </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers that relay neural messages across the synapse </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Seven Important Neurotransmitters Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersDopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Produces sensations of pleasure and reward; used by CNS neurons in voluntary movement Problems with Imbalance: Schizophrenia, Parkinsons disease Substances that Affect: Cocaine, amphetamines, Ritalin, alcohol </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007Neurotransmitters Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Regulates sleep and dreaming, mood, pain, aggression, appetite and sexual behavior Problems with Imbalance: Depression, certain anxiety disorders, obsessive- compulsive disorder Substances that Affect: Prozac, hallucinogenics (e.g. LSD) </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007Neurotransmitters Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Controls heart rate, sleep, sexual responsiveness, stress, vigilance and appetite Problems with Imbalance: High blood pressure, depression Substances that Affect: Tricyclic antidepressants, beta blockers </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007Neurotransmitters Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Primary transmitter used by neurons carrying messages from CNS; involved in some kinds of learning and memory Problems with Imbalance: Certain muscular disorders, Alzheimers disease Substances that Affect: Nicotine, botulism toxin, curare, atropine </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007Neurotransmitters Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter in neurons of CNS Problems with Imbalance: Anxiety, epilepsy Substances that Affect: Barbiturates, tranquilizers (e.g. Valium, Librium), alcohol </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007Neurotransmitters Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Primary excitatory neurotransmitter in CNS; involved in learning and memory Problems with Imbalance: Brain damage after stroke Substances that Affect: PCP (angel dust) </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007Neurotransmitters Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Pleasurable sensations and control of pain Problems with Imbalance: Lowered levels resulting from opiate addiction Substances that Affect: Opiates: opium, heroin, morphine, methadone </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Plasticity Plasticity Ability of the nervous system to adapt or change as the result of experience; sometimes helps the nervous system adapt to physical damage </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Glial Cells Glial cells (from the Greek for glue) Provide structural support for neurons Help in forming new synapses Form myelin sheath MS (multiple sclerosis) attacks the myelin sheath resulting in poor conduction and loss of movement control </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 The Organization of the Nervous System Nervous system Peripheral nervous system Central nervous system (CNS) Autonomic nervous system Somatic nervous system splits into sensory and motor NS Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 The Endocrine System (the bodys chemical messenger system) </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 The Endocrine System Pituitary gland Master gland that produces hormones influencing the secretions of all other endocrine glands; produces hormone that influences growth; attached to hypothalamus </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 How Does the Brain Produce Behavior and Mental Processes? The brain is composed of many specialized modules that work together to create mind and behavior </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Windows on the Brain EEG (electroencephalograph) Device for recording brain waves, typically by electrodes placed on the scalp Brain waves Patterns of electrical activity generated by the brain </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Windows on the Brain Epilepsy Brain disorder that is often marked by seizures and loss of consciousness; caused by out-of-control electrical activity in the brain </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Windows on the Brain Lesions Tissue damage that results from disease or injury </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Windows on the Brain Brain scans Recordings of the brains electrical or biochemical activity at specific sites CT scanning (computerized tomography) X rays are passed through at various angles creating a static image of brain structure PET scanning (positron emission tomography) senses low-level radioactive glucose to create brightly colored areas of activity MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) also functional or fMRI creates highly detailed pictures from pulses of magnetic energy </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Three Layers of the Brain Brain stem and cerebellum Drive vital functions, such as heart rate, breathing, digestion Limbic system Adds emotions, complex motives, increased memory abilities Cerebrum Enables reasoning, planning, creating, problem solving </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 The Brain Stem and Cerebellum Thalamus Pons Cerebellum Medulla Brain stem </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 The Limbic System Hypothalamus Serves as the brains blood- testing laboratory, constantly monitors blood to determine the condition of the body </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 The Limbic System Amygdala Involved in memory and emotion, particularly fear and aggression </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 The Limbic System Hippocampus Involved in establishing long-term memories </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 The Cerebrum Cerebrum Topmost layer of the brain; the bulbous cap over the limbic system Cerebral cortex Thin gray-matter covering of the cerebrum; carries on thinking and perceiving=2/3 of brains total mass Cerebral hemispheres The two walnut shaped halves of the cerebrum, connected by the corpus callosum </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 The Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex Frontal lobes (movementmotor cortex, planning, deciding, perceiving) Parietal lobes (touch sensationsomatosensory cortex and spatial relationships) Occipital lobes (contain visual cortex) Temporal lobes (process sounds/speech and has some ties to memory) </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 The Cooperative Brain Association cortex Cortical regions that combine information from various other parts of the brain </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Cerebral Dominance Cerebral dominance Tendency of each brain hemisphere to exert control over different functions Aphasia The loss of speech caused by brain damage Speech production lies in the frontal lobe, left hemisphere (Brocas area. Understanding language lies in the left parietal and temporal lobes (Wernickes area). Spatial orientation Process of locating ones body or other objects in space </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 Specialization of the Cerebral Hemispheres Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere Spontaneous speaking and writing Responses to complex commands Word recognition Memory for words and numbers Sequences of movements Positive emotion Repetitive but not spontaneous speaking Responses to simple commands Facial recognition Memory for shapes and music Spatial interpretation Emotional responsiveness Negative emotion </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 The Split Brain Split-brain patients Individuals who have had the corpus callosum surgically severed Duality of consciousness Condition in which a split-brain patient has a separate consciousness in each hemisphere </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007 End of Chapter 3 </li> </ul>

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