Chapters 1 2 Biopsychology as a N 2009 Allyn Bacon ... This multimedia product and its contents are ... Copyright 2009 Allyn Bacon Other Disciplines of Neuroscience

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<ul><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p>What Is Biopsychology,Anyway? This multimedia product and its contents are</p><p>protected under copyright law. The following areprohibited by law: any public performance or display, includingtransmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including theextraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.</p><p>Chapters 1&amp; 2Biopsychology as a Neuroscience</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p>What Is Biopsychology? The scientific study of the biology of</p><p>behavior Also called psychobiology,</p><p>behavioral biology, behavioralneuroscience</p><p> Psychology: the scientific study ofbehavior</p><p>`</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p>Biopsychology and OtherDisciplines of Neuroscience Knowledge from other disciplines of</p><p>neuroscience is applied to the study ofbehavior</p><p> Each discipline studies a differentaspect of the nervous system thatinforms our understanding of whatproduces and controls behavior</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p>Other Disciplines ofNeuroscience Neuroanatomy</p><p> Structure of the nervous system Neurochemistry</p><p> Chemical bases of neural activity Neuroendocrinology</p><p> Interactions between the nervous systemand the endocrine system</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p>Other Disciplines ofNeuroscience (continued) Neuropathology</p><p> Nervous system disorders Neuropharmacology</p><p> Effects of drugs on neural activity Neurophysiology</p><p> Functions and activities of the nervoussystem</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p>Biopsychological Research:Three Major Dimensions Human and nonhuman</p><p>subjects Experiments and</p><p>nonexperiments Pure and applied research</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p>Human and NonhumanSubjects While some questions about behavior</p><p>can only be addressed using humansubjects, much can be learned fromstudying the brains of other species</p><p> Species differences are morequantitative than qualitative</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p>Human and NonhumanSubjects (continued)</p><p> Why use nonhumans? Simpler brains makes it more likely that brain-behavior</p><p>interactions will be revealed Comparative approach gain insight by making</p><p>comparisons with other species Fewer ethical restrictions than with humans</p><p> Why use humans? They can follow instructions They can report their introspections Theyre cheaper</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p>Experiments andNonexperiments Experiments involve the manipulation of</p><p>variables In nonexperiments, the researcher does</p><p>not control the variables of interest Quasiexperimental studies Case studies</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p>Pure and Applied Research Pure research conducted for the</p><p>purpose of acquiring knowledge Applied research intended to bring</p><p>about some direct benefit to humankind Some research projects may have</p><p>elements of both</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p>Divisions of Biopsychology Six major divisions</p><p> Physiological psychology Psychopharmacology Neuropsychology Psychophysiology Cognitive neuroscience Comparative psychology</p><p> Each has a different approach, but there ismuch overlap</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p>` There is a tendency to think in simple</p><p>dichotomies when explaining behavior: Is it physiological or psychological? Is it inherited or is it learned?</p><p> Both questions are common, yetmisguided</p><p>From Dichotomies toRelations and Interactions</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p> Cartesian dualism: Descartes arguedthat the universe consists of twoelements Physical matter Human mind (soul, self, or spirit)</p><p> Cartesian dualism views the mind andbrain as separate entities</p><p>Is It Physiological orPsychological?</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p>Is It Inherited or Is It Learned? The nature-nurture issue Watson, father of behaviorism, believed</p><p>that all behavior was the product oflearning (nurture)</p><p> Ethology, the study of animal behaviorin the wild, focused on instinctivebehaviors, emphasizing nature</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p> Problem 1: Brain damage</p><p>has an impact on psycho-logical functioningOliverSackss case study of aman with asomatognosia</p><p> Deficiency in awareness ofparts of ones own body</p><p> Due to damage to the rightparietal lobe</p><p>Problems of Traditional Dicho-tomies: Mind-Brain Dualism</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p> Problem 2: Chimps show psycho-logical (i.e., human) abilitiesGallups research on chimp self-awareness Chimps spontaneously groom themselves</p><p>in mirror Chimps examine and touch red mark on</p><p>their own face seen in mirror</p><p>Problems of Traditional Dichotomies: Mind-Brain Dualism</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2009 Allyn &amp; Bacon</p><p> Many factors have an impact on behavior otherthan genetics (nature) or learning (nurture)</p><p> Nurture now encompasses learning andenvironment</p><p> While it is generally accepted that behavior is aproduct of nature and nurture, many still ask howmuch is determined by each, but genetic andexperiential factors do not merely combine in anadditive fashion</p><p>Problems of TraditionalDichotomies: Nature-or-Nurture</p></li></ul>


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