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Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon What Is Biopsychology, Anyway? This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Chapter 1 Biopsychology as a Neuroscience Slide 2 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Four Major Themes 1. Thinking about biopsychology Becoming a critical thinker Becoming a creative thinker 2. Clinical implications Study of diseased or damaged brains leads to new knowledge New knowledge leads to new treatments Slide 3 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Four Major Themes (continued) 3. The evolutionary perspective Environmental pressures on human evolution Comparativ e approach (other species) 4. Neuroplasticity Brain growth and restructuring Slide 4 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon What Is Biopsychology? The scientific study of the biology of behavior Also called psychobiology, behavioral biology, behavioral neuroscience Psychology: the scientific study of behavior ` Slide 5 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon What Is Biopsychology? (continued) Hebb (1949) proposed that psychological phenomena might be produced by brain activity Biopsychology takes an eclectic approach based on experiments, case studies, observation, and inference ` Slide 6 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Biopsychology and Other Disciplines of Neuroscience Knowledge from other disciplines of neuroscience is applied to the study of behavior Each discipline studies a different aspect of the nervous system that informs our understanding of what produces and controls behavior Slide 7 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Other Disciplines of Neuroscience Neuroanatomy Structure of the nervous system Neurochemistry Chemical bases of neural activity Neuroendocrinology Interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system Slide 8 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Other Disciplines of Neuroscience (continued) Neuropathology Nervous system disorders Neuropharmacology Effects of drugs on neural activity Neurophysiology Functions and activities of the nervous system Slide 9 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Biopsychological Research: Three Major Dimensions Human and nonhuman subjects Experiments and nonexperiments Pure and applied research Slide 10 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Human and Nonhuman Subjects While some questions about behavior can only be addressed using human subjects, much can be learned from studying the brains of other species Species differences are more quantitative than qualitative Slide 11 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Human and Nonhuman Subjects (continued) Why use nonhumans? Simpler brains makes it more likely that brain-behavior interactions will be revealed Comparative approach gain insight by making comparisons with other species Fewer ethical restrictions than with humans Why use humans? They can follow instructions They can report their introspections Theyre cheaper Slide 12 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Experiments and Nonexperiments Experiments involve the manipulation of variables In nonexperiments, the researcher does not control the variables of interest Quasiexperimental studies Case studies Slide 13 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Experiments and Nonexperiments (continued) Experiments involving living subjects require that subjects be placed in various conditions Between-subjects design: Different group of subjects tested under each condition Within-subjects design : Same group of subjects tested under each condition Slide 14 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Experiments and Nonexperiments (continued) The difference between the conditions is the independent variable The effect of the independent variable is the dependent variable Must avoid confounded variables that affect the dependent variable Slide 15 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Experiments and Nonexperiments (continued) Example: control of confounded variables t he Coolidge effect The confounded variables: A female hamster may be more receptive to a new partner due to novelty or to his vigor (compared to the fatigued former partner) Slide 16 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Lester & Gorzalka (1988) solve confounded variable problem with a clever experimental design: a third male Slide 17 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Quasiexperimental studies studies of groups of subjects exposed to conditions in the real world Not real experiments as potential confounded variables have not been controlled Experiments and Nonexperiments (continued) Slide 18 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Case studies focus on a single individual, such as Jimmie G. Usually more in-depth than other approaches, but may not be generalizable Generalizability the degree to which results can be applied to other cases Experiments and Nonexperiments (continued) Slide 19 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Pure and Applied Research Pure research conducted for the purpose of acquiring knowledge Applied research intended to bring about some direct benefit to humankind Some research projects may have elements of both Slide 20 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Divisions of Biopsychology Six major divisions Physiological psychology Psychopharmacology Neuropsychology Psychophysiology Cognitive neuroscience Comparative psychology Each has a different approach, but there is much overlap Slide 21 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Divisions of Biopsychology (continued) Physiological psychology Neural mechanisms of behavior Direct manipulation of the brain Psychopharmacology Effects of drugs on the brain and behavior Neuropsychology Psychological effects of brain damage in humans Slide 22 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Psychophysiology Relation between physiological activity and psychological processes Example: visual tracking in schizophrenics Divisions of Biopsychology (continued) Slide 23 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Cognitive neuroscience the neural bases of cognition Functional brain imaging is the major method of cognitive neuroscience Slide 24 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Comparative psychology Comparing different species to understand evolution, genetics, and adaptiveness of behavior Divisions of Biopsychology (continued) Slide 25 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Slide 26 Converging Operations Using multiple approaches to address a single question Korsakoffs syndrome a condition characterized by severe memory loss and most commonly seen in alcoholics Is Korsakoffs the result of the toxic effects of alcohol on the brain? Slide 27 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Converging Operations (continued) Jimmie G. an alcoholic with Korsakoffs syndrome Korsakoffs is also seen in malnourished persons who had little or no alcohol Thiamine-deficient rats exhibit memory deficits Alcohol accelerates the development of brain damage in thiamine-deficient rats Slide 28 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon By exploring the possible causes of Korsakoffs using multiple approaches, or converging operations, findings are more accurate Korsakoffs syndrome is the result of thiamine deficiency, but the damage is accelerated by alcohol Converging Operations (continued) Slide 29 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Scientific Inference The empirical method that biopsychologists use to study the unobservable Scientists measure what they can observe and use these measures as a basis for inferring what they cant observe Slide 30 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon The perception of motion under four different conditions Scientific Inference (continued) Slide 31 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Critical Thinking The ability to evaluate scientific claims by identifying potential omissions or weaknesses in the evidence Slide 32 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Critical Thinking (continued) Case 1: Delgado claims that a charging bull can be tamed by stimulation of its caudate nucleus Exciting account reported in popular press Many possible alternative explanations Morgans Canon prefer the simplest explanation Slide 33 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Critical Thinking (continued) Case 2: Moniz wins Nobel Prize for prefrontal lobotomy Adoption for human therapy based largely on one study of a single chimpanzee Inadequate postoperative evaluation of human patients, often by the physician who prescribed the surgery Undesirable side effects such as amorality, lack of foresight, emotional unresponsiveness, epilepsy, and urinary incontinence Slide 34 Copyright 2009 Allyn & Bacon Critical Thinking (continued) The prefrontal lobotomy procedure developed by Moniz and Lima