Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2003 1 Biopsychology Chapter 2 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 1 Biopsychology Chapter 2 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. ISBN: 0-205-37181-7 </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 2 Core Concept 2-1 Evolution has shaped psychological processes because it favors genetic variations that produce adaptive behavior. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 3 Charles Darwin First described theory of evolution Discovered evidence for natural selection </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 4 Darwins Theory Never said man evolved from monkey Rather, we share a common ancestor </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 5 Basis of evolution Fittest of species selected to survive and reproduce Survival-promoting traits passed to next generation </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 6 Genetics Chromosomes Genes DNA </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 7 Genes and Inheritance Physical traits inherited Intelligence, personality, and some mental disorders are influenced by genetics </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 8 Core Concept 2-2 Both the nervous system and the endocrine system use chemical messengers to communicate with targets throughout the body. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 9 Nervous System Network of nerve cells in body </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 10 The Organization of the Nervous System Nervous system Peripheral nervous system Central nervous system (CNS) Autonomic nervous system Somatic nervous system Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 11 Peripheral Nervous System </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 12 Divisions of Autonomic Nervous System </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 13 Neurons Nerve Cells Basic unit of the nervous system Linked together </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 14 Types of Neurons Sensory neurons-to CNS from senses Motor neurons-to muscles and glands from CNS Interneurons-relay messages </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 15 Structure of a Neuron Dendrites Soma Axon Myelin Sheath Terminal Buttons </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 16 The Structure of a Neuron </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 17 Neural Impulse Electrical surge that carries the neurons message </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 18 Neural Impulse </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 19 Neurotransmitters Chemicals that relay neural message across the synapse </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 20 Seven Important Neurotransmitters Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 21 Serotonin Involved in mood, sleep, appetite, sex Imbalance- depression and anxiety </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 22 Serotonin and Depression SSRI-prevent the reuptake of serotonin Prozac-effective antidepressant Side-effects-weight gain, low sex drive </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 23 Brain Areas Affected by SSRIs </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 24 Other SSRI Medications </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 25 The Endocrine System (the bodys chemical messenger system) </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 26 Endocrine System Glands-secrete hormones into blood Hormones circulate through body Control growth, development, reproduction Maintain internal body functioning and energy </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 27 Core Concept 2-3 The brain is composed of many specialized modules that work together to create mind and behavior. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 28 Trephining </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 29 Trephining </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 30 Phrenology </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 31 Phineas Gage </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 32 Windows into the Brain Images of brain structures or functioning Allow the study of the brain Also used as medical tests in diagnosis </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 33 EEG </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 34 CT Scan </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 35 MRI </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 36 PET Scan </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 37 The Human Brain at Home </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 38 The Brain Layers Lobes Hemispheres </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 39 Layers of Brain Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 40 Hindbrain Brain stem and cerebellum Vital functions- breathing, etc. </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 41 Midbrain Limbic System including the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala Emotion, motivation, memory </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 42 Forebrain Cerebrum including cortex Higher cognitive functions such as reasoning, planning, problem-solving </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 43 Cerebrum Top of the brain Covered by cortex Folds of tissue Thicker in humans than any animal </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 44 Lobes of Brain </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 45 Occipital Lobe At base of skull Vision </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 46 Temporal Lobe At the temples, above the ears Hearing </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 47 Parietal Lobe At the top of the skull Sensory-motor </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 48 Sensory-Motor Cortex </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 49 Frontal Lobe Just behind the forehead Higher cognitive functions-problem solving, judgment, impulse control </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 50 Hemispheres of Brain </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 51 Contralateral Motor Functioning </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 52 Handedness </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 53 Handedness and Hemisphere Functioning </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 54 Visual Fields </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 55 Specialization of the Cerebral Hemispheres Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere Verbal Abilities Analytical and Logical Thinking Part to Whole Thinking Abstract Thinking Nonverbal Abilities Visual-spatial Thinking Whole to Part Thinking Concrete Thinking </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn and Bacon 2003 56 Brain Damage and Behavior </li> </ul>

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