copyright 1998 by allyn & bacon chapter 4 principles of exercise

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  • Copyright 1998 by Allyn & BaconChapter 4

    Principles of Exercise

  • Copyright 1998 by Allyn & BaconIdeal Exercise ProgramCardiorespiratory functionMost important health-related fitness componentFoundationRequires 20-30 minutes of continuous, uninterrupted exerciseAn aerobic exerciseExamples of aerobic exerciseWalking (4 mph or faster), jogging, running, cycling, lap swimming, aerobic dancing, and conditioning classesSports ApproachRacquetball squash (singles)Tennis or handball (singles)Soccer or RugbyLacrosseFull Court Basketball

  • Ideal Exercise ProgramMuscular StrengthStrength TrainingIncrease size and strength of muscleIncreases lean muscle mass and resting metabolic rateDecreases BF% and Maintain BW2 3 times a week can have positive effectStrength Training in elderlyIncreases quality of life and ability to perform ADLsMuscular strength and enduranceBone massStair climbing and walking abilityDecreases risk of falling and fractures

  • Circuit TrainingInterval Training in which strength exercises is combined with endurance/aerobic activityBenefitsCan be specific No need for expensive gym equipmentWhole body workout

  • Ideal Exercise ProgramMuscular EnduranceAbility to exercise for long periods of timeNeeded in sports requiring all out effortsADLsIncrease in flexibility Decreases in both home and exercise injuriesPerform various activities more efficiently and effectively

  • Ideal Exercise ProgramBody CompositionAerobic exercise burns more calories and tone body20 60 minutes or more is all that is neededKey to fat loss through exercise is volume, not intensityLonger = more K burned = shrinking of fat cellsReduce caloric intakeFlexibility, Strength, and Endurance TrainingIncrease muscle massDecrease skin sagging

  • Copyright 1998 by Allyn & BaconFitness ConceptsBegin with a preconditioning programMinimum 6 -8 weeks to improve aerobic fitnessMoving too quickly from one fitness level to the next stages may cause:Muscle soreness or Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness (DOMS)Increased risk of soft tissue injuryCause you to quit long before results are noticeableFirst 2 3 weeks (preconditioning period)Expect DOMS but shouldnt be severe

  • Principles of ExercisePRE Principle: Progressive Resistance ExerciseOverload Principle:Overload the body to increase performanceFITT Principle:Frequency, Intensity, Time, TypeCardio, Resistance Training, FlexibilityRPE ScaleKarvonen Method

  • DefinitionsResting Heart Rate (RHR)Reflects heart rate (bpm) in the morning, at rest, averaged over 3 daysMaximal Heart Rate (HRmax)Heart rate in bpm at all out effort commonly estimated by 220 ageTraining or Target Heart Rate (THR)Reflects training intensity in beats per minute (bpm)If asked for the THR Range both the low and high training intensities in bpm will be expected.Heart Rate Reserve (HRR)Difference between maximum and resting heart rateRecovery Heart Rate The rate at which the heart recovers from exercise

  • Fitness ConceptsProgressive Resistance PrincipleGradual increase the amount of resistance to be overcome or the number of repetitions in each workoutIncrease overload of muscular, circulatory and respiratoryBody will repair itself and increases in all these areas will be seenExamine what happens to your body when you first begin an exercise program

  • PRE Principle and CardiorespiratoryRegular exercise places stress on the heart and will increase stroke volumeA trained heart with improved cardiac output will:Pump more blood per 1 min.Heart beat (pulse) to slow downFewer beats per minuteIncreased time of rest for heart between beatsArteries will also enlarge as the heart muscle adapts to the stress of exercise

  • PRE GuidelinesKeep exercise strenuous to cause an initial decrease in fitness levelAllow for sufficient time for recovery48 hours for strength training18 24 hours for aerobic and other workoutsFailure to follow this will lead to overuse injuries and decrease in benefits from workoutConduct next workout within 24 48 hours; more time will cause a decline in your conditioning level

  • Overload PrincipleUsed in PRE principleOverload the muscles and cardiovascular systems to achieve improvement in fitnessOverload above the bodys natural ability to perform a certain exerciseChanged frequently to avoid plateauProper rest (18-48 hours) between exercise is needed for desired results

  • F.I.T. PrincipleFrequency How often?IntensityHow hard? (Max HR or HRR)TimeHow long?TypeWhat type of activity are they doing?

  • Cardiorespiratory FITF:3 5 days per weekI:64/70 94% of max heart rate (HRmax) 40/50 85% of heart rate reserveT:20-60 minutes aerobic activityT:The best aerobic activity that serves the needs of the individualInvolve large musclesEncourage compliance without undue risk of injury

  • Cardiorespiratory ProgressionInitial Conditioning Phase:F: 3x weekI: 64-70% max HR (40-50% HRR)T: 20-30 minutes continuous or 10 min. boutsdeconditioned or post-opPeriod: 4 6 (plus) weeks

  • Cardiorespiratory ProgressionImprovement Conditioning Phase:F: 3 5 x / weekI: 77-94% max HR (60-85% HRR)T: 20 - 60 minutes Period: small increases every 2 3 weeks for 4 5 months

  • Cardiorespiratory ProgressionMaintenance Conditioning Phase6 months or until goals are metReview PhaseReview programReassess goals

  • RPERate of Perceived Exertion Based on a scale 6 20Roughly based on RHR to MHR, i.e. 60 - 200Revised scale 1 10To Help clients more accurately estimate their aerobic exercise intensity

  • RPE Scale7 Very Very Light9 Very Light11 Fairly Light13 Somewhat Light15 Hard17 Very Hard19 Very Very Hard20 Maximal effort

  • Karvonen Method Uses Percentage of HRR rather than percentage of estimated Maximal Heart Rate

    Formula(220 age RHR) x %HRR + RHR = THR

  • ExampleAn aerobically unfit 20 year old client with a RHR of 75, with an intensity of 40% HRR:

    220 age (20) = 200 HR max200 HR max 75 RHR = 125 HRR125 HRR x .40 (40% HRR) = 5050 + 75 RHR = 125 bpm

  • Copyright 1998 by Allyn & BaconFitness ConceptsApply the principle of specificityAlternate light & heavy workoutsWarm up properly before each workoutFormalInformalPassiveOverloadCool down properly after workout

  • Copyright 1998 by Allyn & BaconFitness ConceptsDress appropriately Take special precautions when exercising outdoorsChoose soft surfaces whenever possible

  • Copyright 1998 by Allyn & BaconFitness ConceptsUse cross training in the aerobic component of your programUse a maintenance approach after reaching your desired level of fitnessMonitor your progress carefully

  • Copyright 1998 by Allyn & BaconMaking the Right Exercise ChoicesChoosing an aerobic programChoosing a muscular strength programChoosing a muscular endurance programSelecting an appropriate flexibility training program

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