Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.

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<ul><li><p>Chapter 12Psychological DisordersThis multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any imagesAny rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN: 0-131-73180-7</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>What is PsychologicalDisorder?</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>What is PsychologicalDisorder?Psychopathology Any pattern of emotions, behaviors, or thoughts inappropriate to the situation and leading to personal distress or the inability to achieve important goalsSynonymous terms include:Mental illnessMental disorderPsychological disorder</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>What is PsychologicalDisorder?Three classic signs suggest severe psychological disorder HallucinationsDelusionsSevere affective disturbances</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Indicators of AbnormalityOther signs of a disorder are more subtle, and a diagnosis depends heavily on clinical judgmentDistressMaladaptivenessIrrationalityUnpredictabilityUnconventionality and undesirable behavior</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Changing Concepts ofPsychological Disorder: The Cognitive-Behavioral ApproachBehavioral perspective Abnormal behaviors can be acquired through behavioral learning operant and classical conditioningCognitive perspective Abnormal behaviors are influenced by mental processes how people perceive themselves and their relations with others</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The Biopsychology of Mental DisorderAlthough most psychologists have reservations about the medical model, the do not deny the influence of biology on thought and behavior</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>How are PsychologicalDisorders Classified?</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Overview of DSM-IV Classification SystemDSM-IV Fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; the most widely accepted classification system in the United StatesNeurotic disorder or neurosisPsychotic disorder or psychosisIn multiaxial diagnosis, professionals look at the entire person, not just their abnormal behavior </p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Mood DisordersMajor depression Form of depression that does not alternate with maniaSeasonal affective disorder (SAD) Believed to be caused by deprivation of sunlight Bipolar disorder Mental abnormality involving swings of mood from mania to depression</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Anxiety DisordersGeneralized anxiety disorder Characterized by persistent and pervasive feelings of anxiety, without any external causePanic disorder Marked by panic attacks that have no connection to events in a persons present experienceAgoraphobia Fear of public places/open spaces</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Anxiety DisordersPhobias A group of anxiety disorders involving a pathological fear of a specific object or situationPreparedness hypothesis Notion that we have an innate tendency, acquired through natural selection, to respond quickly and automatically to stimuli that posed a survival threat to our ancestors</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Anxiety DisordersObsessive-compulsive disorder Condition characterized by patterns of persistent, unwanted thoughts and behaviors</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Somatoform DisordersSomatoform disorders Psychological problems appearing in the form of bodily symptoms or physical complaintsConversion disorder Somatoform disorder marked by paralysis, weakness, or loss of sensation, but with no discernable physical cause</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Somatoform DisordersGlove Anesthesia</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Somatoform DisordersHypochondriasis Somatoform disorder involving excessive concern about health and disease</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Dissociative DisordersDissociative disorders Group of pathologies involving fragmentation of the personalityDissociative amnesiaDissociative fugueDepersonalization disorderDissociative identity disorder</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Dissociative DisordersA psychologically induced loss of memory for personal informationDissociative amnesiaDissociative fugueDepersonalization disorderDissociative identity disorder</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Dissociative DisordersDissociative amnesia with the addition of flight from ones home, family, and jobDissociative amnesiaDissociative fugueDepersonalization disorderDissociative identity disorder</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Dissociative DisordersAbnormality involving the sensation of mind and body having separatedDissociative amnesiaDissociative FugueDepersonalization disorderDissociative identity disorder</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Dissociative DisordersCondition in which the individual displays multiple identitiesDissociative amnesiaDissociative FugueDepersonalization disorderDissociative identity disorder</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Eating DisordersAnorexia nervosa Eating disorder involving persistent loss of appetite that endangers an individuals health stemming from psychological reasons rather than organic causesBulimia Eating disorder characterized be eating binges followed by purges, induced by vomiting or laxatives; typical initiated as a weight-control measure</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Schizophrenic DisordersSchizophrenia Psychotic disorder involving distortions in thoughts, perceptions, and/or emotions</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Major Types of SchizophreniaDisorganizedCatatonicParanoidUndifferentiatedResidualPositiveNegative</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Major Types of SchizophreniaFeatures incoherent speech, hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behaviorDisorganizedCatatonicParanoidUndifferentiatedResidual Type</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Major Types of SchizophreniaInvolves stupor or extreme excitementDisorganizedCatatonicParanoidUndifferentiatedResidual Type</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Major Types of SchizophreniaProminent feature: combination of delusions and hallucinationsDisorganizedCatatonicParanoidUndifferentiatedResidual Type</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Major Types of SchizophreniaPersons displaying a combination of symptoms that do not clearly fit in one of the other categoriesDisorganizedCatatonicParanoidUndifferentiatedResidual Type</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Major Types of SchizophreniaIndividuals who have had a past episode of schizophrenia but are free of symptomsDisorganizedCatatonicParanoidUndifferentiatedResidual Type</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Major Types of SchizophreniaAny form in which the person displays active symptoms (e.g. delusions, hallucinations)Positive SchizophreniaNegative Schizophrenia</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Major Types of SchizophreniaAny form distinguished by deficits, such as withdrawal and poverty of thought processesPositive SchizophreniaNegative Schizophrenia</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Possible Causes of SchizophreniaEvidence for the causes of schizophrenia has been found in a variety of factors including genetics, abnormal brain structure, and biochemistryDiathesis-stress hypothesis Genetic factors place the individual at risk, but environmental stress factors transform this potential into an actual schizophrenic disorder</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Personality DisordersPersonality disorders Conditions involving a chronic, pervasive, inflexible, and maladaptive pattern of thinking, emotion, social relationships, or impulse control</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Personality DisordersNarcissistic personality disorder Characterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, a preoccupation with fantasies of success and power, and a need for constant attention</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Personality DisordersAntisocial personality disorder Characterized by a long-standing pattern of irresponsible behavior indicating a lack of conscience and a diminished sense of responsibility to others</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Personality DisordersBorderline personality disorder An unstable personality given to impulsive behavior</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Adjustment Disorders and Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical AttentionMild depressionPhysical complaintsMarital problemsAcademic problemsParent-child problemsBereavementMalingeringJob problems</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Developmental DisordersAutism A developmental disorder marked by disabilities in language, social interaction, and the ability to understand another persons state of mindDyslexia A reading disability, thought by some experts to involve a brain disorder</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Developmental DisordersAttention-deficit hyperactivity disorder A developmental disability involving short attention span, distractibility, and extreme difficulty in remaining inactive for any period</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>ShynessShyness, a distressing pattern of avoiding or withdrawing from social contact is treatable, but it is not a DSM-IV disorder</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>What are the Consequencesof Labeling People?</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The Plea of InsanityInsanity A legal term, not a psychological or psychiatric one, referring to a person who is unable, because of a mental disorder or defect, to confirm his or her behavior to the law</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>End of Chapter 12</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li></ul>

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