PERSUASIONANDARGUMENT Chapter 15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.

Download PERSUASIONANDARGUMENT Chapter 15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.

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<ul><li><p>PERSUASIONAND ARGUMENTChapter 15Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images;any rental, lease, or lending of the program</p></li><li><p>Because there has been implanted in us the power to persuade each other not only have we escaped the life of the wild beasts but we have come together and founded cities and made laws and invented arts. -- Socrates</p></li><li><p>If all mankind, minus one, were of the one opinion mankind would be no more justified in silencing that one person than he would be justified in silencing mankind. --John Stuart Mill</p></li><li><p>Persuasion is the art of gaining fair and favorable consideration for our points of view</p></li><li><p>Characteristics of Persuasive SpeakingUrges a choice among optionsAdvocates a positionSupporting material becomes evidenceListeners become agents of changeAsks considerable audience commitmentCredible leadership is importantOften uses emotional appealsEthical obligation is highCopyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Informative vs. PersuasiveCopyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Argumentative vs. Manipulative PersuasionManipulative persuasionSuggestionColorful imagesAppealing musicAttractive spokespersonsArgumentative persuasionBuilds arguments based on evidenceRelies heavily on logical reasoningAddresses judgments rather than impulsesAvoids fallaciesCopyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Developing Evidence</p><p>Use facts and figures to justify adviceUse examples to make listeners want to actUse narratives to involve listeners with topicUse expert testimony to support your ideas</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Developing ProofsLogos appeals based on reasonPathos appeals based on emotionsEthos appeals based on credibilityMythos appeals based on cultural traditions </p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p> Components of EthosCompetenceCharacterGoodwillPower Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Sources of EthosEthos of the speakerInitial credibility at beginning of a speechEmerging credibility evolves during speechTerminal credibility at end of a speech</p><p>Ethos of sources citedReputation of periodicalsExpert testimony valuedLay testimony adds authenticity</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Using PathosPortray human dimensions of a problemExamples can develop emotional appealsPersonal narratives are most effectiveCannot be too obviousNegative emotional appeals may backfireBack them up with informationKeep delivery understatedCopyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Proof by MythosPeople value cultural identityEvoked by traditional storiesEvoked by cultural symbolsRemind us of heroes or enemiesCalls for patriotism or other cultural assumptionsCan have positive or negative impactCopyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Patterns of ReasoningReasoning from definitionShared understandingChange listeners perspectives </p><p>Reasoning from principleDeductive reasoningGeneral to specific</p><p>Reasoning from realityInductive reasoningSpecific to general</p><p>Reasoning from parallel casesAnalogical reasoningStrategic points of comparisonCopyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Reasoning from PrincipleGeneral principle = major premiseSpecific issue = minor premiseConclusion drawn from relationship between major and minor premisesYes, its an enthymeme (a form of syllogism.)Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Argument from PrincipleAudience must accept major premiseDemonstrate relevance of conditionsExplain relationship between theseKeep reasoning free from fallaciesConclusion should offer clear directionCopyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Reasoning from Reality</p><p>Requires objective observationsNeeds a sufficient number of observationsObservations should be recentObservations should be representativeObservations should be relevant to conclusionEstablish credibility of sourcesCopyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Reasoning from Parallel CasesSimilar to reasoning from realityTies the unfamiliar to the familiarConcentrates on one similar situationSimilarities must outweigh dissimilaritiesCopyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Interplay of ReasoningData facts, examples, expert testimonyClaim conclusion drawn from dataWarrant justification of movement from data to claimBacking additional support for claimReservations exceptions to claimQualifiers possible reservations-- Toulman FormatCopyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Defective EvidenceFallaciesSlippery slope fallacyConfusing fact and opinionRed herring fallacyMyth of the meanFlawed statistical comparisonsDefective testimonyInappropriate evidenceCopyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Defective ProofAd hominem fallacy</p><p>Begging the questionCopyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Defective ReasoningShaky principle fallacyOmitted qualifiersPost hoc fallacyHasty generalizationNon sequitur fallacyFaulty analogyCopyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li><li><p>Design FallaciesEither-or thinkingStraw man fallacy Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2009</p></li></ul>


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