Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7–1 Elements of Planning.

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7*

    Elements of Planning

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning, Inc. All rights reserved.7*Organizational Goals

    2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning, Inc. All rights reserved.7*Kinds of Goals

    2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 7*Kinds of Organizational Goals for a Regional Fast-Food Chain

  • Creating S.M.A.R.T. Goals

    Specific Be clear about what you want to accomplish. Measurable Put in quantifiable terms to track your progress.

    Attainable Make it challenging, but attainable.

    Realistic Be willing and able to work toward. Timely Include a time frame, have due dates for milestones. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Strategic Plans(Top Management)Broadest set of plans primary objectivesMission statementTactical Plans (Middle Management)Smaller scale used to implement a strategyTypically 1-3 year periodOperational Plans (Supervisory Management)Designed to implement tactical plansTypically 1 year or lessDeals with the how in accomplishing specific objectivesContingency Plans (Any management level)Alternative courses of actionKinds of Organizational Plans

  • 7*The Time Dimension of PlanningPlanning must provide sufficient time to fulfill the managerial commitments involved.Long-range (strategic) plans of 5 or more yearsShort-range (operational) action and contingency plans of 1 year or lessIntermediate-range (tactical) plans of 15 years1510

  • 7*

    Plan TypeDescriptionSingle-use plansDeveloped to carry out a course of action not likely to be repeated in the futureProgramSingle-use plan for a large set of activitiesProjectSingle-use plan of less scope and complexity than a programStanding plansDeveloped for activities that recur regularly over a period of timePolicyStanding plan specifying the organizations general response to a designated problem or situationStandard operating procedureStanding plan outlining steps to be followed in particular circumstancesRules and regulationsStanding plans describing exactly how specific activities are to be carried out

  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7*Rule: (no exceptions)No returns over $50 without a managers signaturePolicy: (manager has some discretion)Accept customer returns Procedure:Outline steps to be followed in particular circumstances(SOPs- Standard Operating Procedures)Example of Policy, Rule, and Procedure

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7*Barriers to Goal Setting and Planning

    Major barriersInappropriate goalsImproper reward systemDynamic and complex environmentReluctance to establish goalsResistance to changeConstraintsOvercoming the barriersUnderstanding the purposes of goals and planningCommunication and participationConsistency, revision, and updatingEffective reward system

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7*The Formal Goal-setting Process Management By Objectives (MBO)

    Goals are collaboratively set between managers and subordinates

    Evaluation and reward based on subordinates performance

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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