Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 6–16–1

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 6161 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> 6262 What is Human Resource Planning? HR Planning is forecasting the supply and demand for labor in a firm or unit, and planning programs to assure that supply matches demand in the future. Who Is Planned For? Aggregate level (total headcount, headcount in job or job family) Individual positions (managerial succession planning) When Is Planning Done? At least annually Time horizons vary </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 6363 Figure 3.1 A Model for Human Resource Planning </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 6464 Figure 3.4: Planning Human Resource Programs </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 6565 Managerial Succession Planning Identify high potential individuals and plan to prepare them for higher level management positions. May use replacement charts to identify successors for specific jobs, or May focus on creating pools of qualified candidates to service a number of positions. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 6666 Figure 3.5 Replacement Chart </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 6767 Job Analysis The Job Analysis Process Phase 1: The Scope of the Job Analysis Phase 2: The Methods of Job Analysis Phase 3: Data Collection and Analysis Phase 4: Assessing Traditional Job Analysis Methods </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 6868 The New Strategic View of Job Analysis Job Analysis Methods Should Be: Future-oriented Linked to key strategic issues More generic in their approach </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 6969 The New Strategic View (contd) Competency Modelling Task competencies Results competencies Outcome competencies Knowledge, skill, and attitude competencies Superior performer differentiators Attribute bundles </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 610 Job Analysis Adding Value? Dollar costs versus dollar benefits Non-dollar costs versus non-dollar benefits Dollar and non-dollar costs/benefits difficult to assess Critical issue is does job analysis help employees perform better Does is help you better understand needs? </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 611 Recruitment &amp; Selection Overview of the Recruitment Process Strategic Issues in Recruiting Internal Recruiting External Recruiting The Applicants Point of View Evaluation and Benchmarking of Recruitment </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 612 Figure 6.1a Overview of the Recruitment Process Organization </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 613 Figure 6.1b Overview of the Recruitment Process Applicant </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 614 Recruitment Philosophy Internal or External Sources? Fill current vacancies or hire for long term potential? How important is diversity? Are applicants commodities or customers? What recruitment practices are unethical? </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 615 Advantages and Disadvantages of Internal Sources + Ability of candidate is known + Internal promotion motivates employees + Training and socialization time is less - Internal sources may be insufficient for growth - Ripple effect, cumbersome procedures - Inbreeding, loss of flexibility </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 616 Advantages and Disadvantages of External Sources + Import new ideas and skills + Avoid ripple effect + May be necessary in turnaround situation - Expensive - Time consuming - More difficult to evaluate candidates </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 617 If the applicant pool is too small... Recruit in a larger geographical area Improve or change inducements Target underutilized labor pools Sponsor immigration of skilled employees Acquire a company with desired human resources Use temporaries or employee leasing Outsource the function </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 618 Internal Recruiting Job Posting and Bidding Employees self-nominate for open positions Search HRIS/Skills Inventory for internal candidates Managers nominate candidates Succession plans are consulted </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 619 Planning for External Recruiting Liaise with hiring manager to understand job requirements Calculate yield ratios Calculate days-to-hire Determine when to begin, how extensively, and where to recruit Prepare to track applications manually or with rsum-tracking software </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 620 Informal External Recruitment Methods Unsolicited applications, walk-ins, gate hires Rehire former employees or co-op students Ask employees to refer potential candidates Consider referral bonuses </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 621 Formal External Recruiting Methods Recruitment Advertising Internet Recruiting Employment Agencies Public Job Service Agencies Private, For-Profit Agencies Executive Search Firms </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 622 Source: Based on a survey of 303 HR Professionals, from HR Magazine, December 1996, p. 53. Data on Internet recruiting is from HR Focus,May 2000, p. 8 Table 6.2 Effectiveness of Recruitment Methods </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 623 Recruiting Targeted Groups Campus Recruiting Older Workers Disabled Workers Disadvantaged Workers Minorities Passive Job Seekers </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 624 Non-Traditional Approaches </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 625 Figure 6.6 Factors Affecting Applicants Job Choice </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 626 Realistic Job Preview Reduces early turnover and dissatisfaction via: Self-Selection out if the job doesnt fit Increased Commitment to an Informed Decision Lowered Expectations, less gap with reality Improved Coping with job difficulties </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 627 Evaluation and Benchmarking of Recruitment Measures of Recruitment Success Satisfaction of Internal Clients Cost per Hire Time to Fill Quality of Hires Differential Quality of Recruiting Sources </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 628 Review Overview of the Recruitment Process Strategic Issues in Recruiting Internal Recruiting External Recruiting The Applicants Point of View Evaluation and Benchmarking of Recruitment </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 629 Case 6.2 - Recruiting at Health Source Health Source owns four drugstores in Houston and will open two more in the next year--one in suburban Houston, one in Dallas. Each start requires 25 employees: 5 pharmacists 4 cosmeticians 1 manager 1 assist. Manager Numerous clerks How would you go about locating and recruiting the 50 employees needed for the new stores? What are your options? How do the recruiting methods you considered compare with one another in terms of cost, and how effective do you think it will be? How long will it take? What if: Health Source plans no further expansion after these two new stores; or Health Source plans to pursue an aggressive expansion policy for several years? </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 630 Assessing Job Candidates: Tools for Selection The Selection Process Application Blanks and Biodata Tests Interviews Physical Testing Reference and Background Checks Selecting Managers Criteria for Choosing Selection Devices </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 631 Benefits of Careful and Strategic Selection Tradeoff with training/socialization Hire more carefully, less training may be needed Hire less carefully, train more afterwards Improved performance Effective strategy implementation Hire the kind of people needed to implement strategy Sustainable competitive advantage Match strategy to the unique human resources you have </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 632 Figure 8.1 The Process of Selection </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 633 Application Questions Problematic Questions: Age, gender, religion, all handicaps, all arrests/convictions, photo, birthplace Any questions that indirectly get at the above. Acceptable Questions: Job-relevant characteristics, qualities, and abilities Bona fide Occupational Qualifications </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 634 Figure 8.2 Constructing a Weighted Application Blank (WAB) </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 635 Developing a Weighted Application Blank </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 636 Biodata Biodata is any personal history information, from WAB, biodata questionnaire, or experience/accomplishment record May be valid because: verifiable, non-fiction only relevant items are weighted point-to-point correspondence with job demands may reflect job-relevant personality traits/values assesses both cognitive and non-cognitive attributes </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 637 Tests A test is a standardized sample of behavior, allowing candidates to be compared easily. Cognitive ability tests are often highly valid predictors of job performance. Tests are legal if they produce no adverse impact OR validly predict job performance. </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 638 Work Sample and Trainability Tests Work sample tests are used to select individuals who already must know how to perform critical job tasks. Trainability tests are used when candidates are not expected to know the job, to assess their aptitude for learning it. Both have face validity, content validity, and usually predictive validity. </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 639 Personality Tests Can predict non-cognitive aspects of job success with low to moderate validity May have incremental validity over cognitive tests </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 640 Big Five Personality Dimensions 1. Extraversion --- introversion 2. Friendliness, agreeableness --- hostility, non-compliance 3. Neuroticism --- emotional stability 4. High conscientiousness --- low conscientiousness 5. High openness to experience --- low openness to experience </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 641 The Interview Interrater reliability of interviews may be low Validity of interviews depends on structure Unstructured interviews are least valid Semi-structured interviews have some pre-planning and some tailoring to the candidate Structured interviews (same questions asked of each candidate) based on a job analysis are most valid </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 642 Interviewer Errors and Biases Similarity Error Contrast Error Overweighting of Negative Information Race, Sex, and Appearance Bias First Impression Error Halo Error Nonverbal Factors Faulty Listening and Memory </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 643 Figure 8.7 Cone Method of Semistructured Interviewing </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 644 Effective Structured Interview Formats Situational Interview What would you do if two of your subordinates were having a conflict? Behavior Description Interview Tell me about a time two of your subordinates were having a conflict. What did you do? How well did it work? What else did you try? </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 645 Improving the Interview Base questions on a thorough job analysis Use a more structured format Use situational and/or behavior description questions Have interview conducted by a trained panel of interviewers Assess only qualities that are visible in interviews </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 646 Physical Testing The Physical Examination May not be required until after a conditional job offer is made Often not as reliable or valid as strength and fitness testing based on verified job demands. May be used for placement or to allow accommodation if unable to perform a marginal job function. </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 647 Drug Testing Drug use is NOT a handicap under ADA Drug tests can be done prior to a conditional offer, also randomly during employment Tests are reliable but expensive and invasive Advisable in safety-sensitive jobs Perceived fairness is essential </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 648 Obtaining Reference/Background Information Written references or phone interviews may be used Ask nominated referees for additional people to contact Ask job-related questions of referees Disclose to applicant that you are seeking reference information or doing a background check </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 649 Validity and Legality of Reference Information Validity may be low Check references to avoid negligent hiring and because rsum fraud is common Beware defamation suits when giving reference information </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 650 Selecting Managers Assessment Centers Multiple assessees Multiple assessors Multiple exercises: In-basket test, leaderless group discussion, interview, tests Valid but expensive </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 651 Criteria for Choosing Selection Devices Validity Utility Cost, Base Rate of Success, Se...</li></ul>

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