Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12–1 Chapter Twelve Personality.

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Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 121 Chapter Twelve Personality Slide 2 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 122 Did You Know That According to the originator of psychodynamic theory, Sigmund Freud, slips of the tongue may reveal hidden motives and wishes of which we are unaware? According to Carl Gustav Jung, another psychodynamic theorist, we inherit a shared unconscious mind containing images that can be traced to ancestral times? Slide 3 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 123 Did You Know That (cont.) According to a leading personality theorist, extraverted people may require more stimulating activities than introverted people to maintain an optimal level of arousal? The Big Five is not the name of a new NCAA basketball conference but the label used to describe the leading trait theory of personality today? Slide 4 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 124 Did You Know That (cont.) A leading humanistic theorist, Carl Rogers, believed that children should receive love and approval unconditionally from their parents regardless of their behavior at any particular point in time? According to a widely held view in the 19 th century, you can learn about a persons character and mental abilities by examining the pattern of bumps on the persons head? Slide 5 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 125 Module 12.1 The Psychodynamic Perspective Slide 6 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 126 Module 12.1 Preview Questions What is personality? What three levels of consciousness did Freud believe comprise the human mind? What are the structures of personality in Freuds theory? What are psychological defense mechanisms? Slide 7 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 127 Module 12.1 Preview Questions (cont.) What are the five states of psychosexual development in Freuds theory? What are some of the major contributions of other psychodynamic theorists? Slide 8 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 128 What Is Personality? The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics and behavior patterns that account for our individuality and consistency over time. Slide 9 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 129 Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory Freuds meeting with Jean Martin Charcot. Importance of instincts: Sexual instinct Aggressive instinct Instincts must be balanced with social acceptability. Importance of early childhood experiences. Slide 10 Figure 12.1: Levels of Consciousness Slide 11 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1211 Psychoanalytic Theory: Structure of Personality Id Unconscious drives and instincts Follows the pleasure principle, instant gratification Ego Follows the reality principle Balancing ids demands with social approval Superego Moral guardian, conscience May impose self-punishment, guilt, shame Slide 12 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1212 Psychoanalytic Theory: Defense Mechanisms Repression Denial Reaction formation Rationalization Projection Sublimation Regression Displacement Slide 13 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1213 Psychoanalytic Theory: Personality Development Psychosexual stages of development Characterized by changes in libido, shifting location of erogenous zones. Activities pleasurable because essential to survival. Conflicts emerge during each psychosexual stage. Conflicts can lead to development of fixations. Slide 14 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1214 Psychosexual Stages of Development Oral Stage: birth to 12-18 months old Erogenous zone is the mouth. Pleasure through sucking, mouthing, chewing. Anal Stage: 18-36 months Erogenous zone is the anal cavity. Sexual pleasure through the ability to control elimination. Conflict arises from issue of toilet training. Anal-retentive vs. anal-expulsive personality Slide 15 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1215 Psychosexual Stages of Development (cont.) Phallic Stage: ages 3-6 Erogenous zone is the phallic region. Core conflict is the Oedipus complex. Freuds followers called female version of conflict the Electra complex. Boys develop castration anxiety. Girls experience penis envy. Slide 16 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1216 Psychosexual Stages of Development (cont.) Latent Stage: ages 6-12 Sexual impulses remain dormant. Genital Stage: puberty to adulthood Attraction to opposite gender. Sexual energies expressed through sexual intercourse, marriage, child bearing. Slide 17 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1217 Other Psychodynamic Approaches Beyond Sigmund Freud: neo-Freudians Less emphasis on sex and aggression Greater emphasis on social relationships, ego, concept of self Slide 18 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1218 Carl Jungs Analytical Psychology Also believed in role of unconscious conflicts on behavior. Greater emphasis on present experiences. Personal unconscious consists of repressed memories and impulses. Collective unconscious contains archetypes. Slide 19 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1219 Alfred Adlers Individual Psychology Emphasis on unique potential of each individual. Conscious experience plays important role in personality. Role of the creative self. Inferiority complex and the drive for superiority Slide 20 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1220 Karen Horney Critic of Freuds view of female development. Emphasized role of social and cultural forces. Importance of parent- child relationships. Basic anxiety Basic hostility Slide 21 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1221 Evaluating the Psychodynamic Perspective Contributions Detailed and comprehensive theory of personality Awareness of unconscious drives, impulses Criticisms Overimportance of sexual and aggressive drives Too little emphasis on social relationships Lack of evidence and questions of validity Untestable hypotheses, unscientific Slide 22 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1222 Module 12.2 The Trait Perspective Slide 23 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1223 Module 12.2 Preview Questions What are the three types of traits in Allports trait model? What was Cattells view on the organization of traits? What three traits are represented in Eysencks model of personality? What is the Big Five trait model of personality? What role do genes play in personality? Slide 24 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1224 Trait Perspective Personality consists of relatively enduring personal characteristics called traits. Trait theorists focus on: How people differ in traits. How traits can be measured. How traits are organized. Slide 25 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1225 Gordon Allport Personality traits are physical entities embedded in the brain. Inherited but influenced by experience Hierarchy of traits Cardinal traits Central traits Secondary traits Slide 26 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1226 Raymond Cattell Surface Traits: Characteristics of personality inferred from observations of behavior. Source Traits: More general traits of personality. Slide 27 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1227 Figure 12.2: Cattells 16PF Slide 28 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1228 Hans Eysenck Described personality using three major traits: Introversion-extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism Biological differences responsible for individual variations in personality traits. Slide 29 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1229 Figure 12.3: Eysencks Personality Types Slide 30 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1230 Five Factor Model (FFM) Big Five personality factors: Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreeableness Conscientiousness Slide 31 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1231 Genetic Basis of Traits Heredity plays important role in shaping personality. Focus is on the interactions of biology and environment. Slide 32 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1232 Evaluating the Trait Perspective Contributions Has intuitive appeal. Led to development of personality tests. Drawbacks Labels rather than explain behavior. Behavior may not be so stable across time and situations as assumed by trait theorists. Emerging view is that behavior involves an interaction between traits and situational factors. Slide 33 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1233 Module 12.3 The Social-Cognitive Perspective Slide 34 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1234 Module 12.3 Preview Questions What are expectancies and subjective values? What is reciprocal determinism? What are situation and person variables? Slide 35 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1235 Traditional Behavioral View Personality is shaped by environmental influences. Personality consists of the sum total of an individuals learned behavior. All behavior is learned on the basis of classical and operant conditioning. Slide 36 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1236 Social-Cognitive Theory Adopts a broader view of learning To explain behavior, must take into account: Cognitive aspects of behavior such as expectancies. Social aspects of behavior such as imitation. Slide 37 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1237 Julian Rotter Explaining, predicting behavior depends on knowing individuals: Reinforcement history Expectancies Subjective values Locus of control External versus internal Slide 38 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1238 Figure 12.4: Banduras Model of Reciprocal Determinism Slide 39 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1239 Albert Bandura Emphasized role of observational learning. Two types of expectancies: Outcome expectations Efficacy expectations Slide 40 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1240 Walter Mischel Situational variables Person variables Expectancies Subjective values Competencies Encoding strategies Self-regulatory systems and plans Slide 41 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1241 Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective Contributions Improved understanding of relationship between behavior and environmental factors. Broadening of learning theory to include cognitive influences. Criticisms Fails to include unconscious influences, heredity. Little focus on subjective experience. Slide 42 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1242 Module 12.4 The Humanistic Perspective Slide 43 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1243 Module 12.4 Preview Questions What is self-theory? How do collectivistic and individualistic cultures view the concept of self? Slide 44 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1244 Carl Rogers Inner drive to strive toward self- actualization. Personality expressed through the conscious experience of directing self towards fulfilling our unique potential. Slide 45 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1245 Rogers Self-Theory Self as center of the human experience Development of self-esteem Unconditional positive regard Conditional positive regard Self-esteem and self-ideals Development of client-centered therapy Slide 46 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1246 Abraham Maslow The innate drive toward self-actualization shapes our personality. Drive motivates us to develop our unique potentials as human beings. Slide 47 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1247 Culture and Self-Identity Collectivistic Cultures: Emphasis on peoples social roles and obligations. Value group goals over individual goals. Emphasis on communal values. Individualistic Cultures: Emphasis on individual identity and personal accomplishments. Idealize independence and self-sufficiency Slide 48 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1248 Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective Contributions Profound impact on society. Focused attention on need to understand subjective or conscious experience of individuals. Influence of client-centered therapy. Helped restore concept of self to psychology. Slide 49 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1249 Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective Criticisms Difficult to scientifically study conscious experience. Possible negative consequences from emphasis on self-fulfillment. Does drive for self-actualization really exist? Slide 50 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1250 Module 12.5 Personality Tests Slide 51 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1251 Module 12.5 Preview Questions What are self-report personality inventories? What are projective tests of personality? Slide 52 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1252 Measuring Personality Historical Attempts Examination of facial features Phrenology Modern Strategies Self-report personality inventories Projective tests Slide 53 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1253 Self-Report Personality Inventories Objective tests Limited response options. Construction based on research. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Constructed to help diagnose mental disorders. Raw scores converted into standard scores. Slide 54 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1254 Figure 12.5: Sample MMPI-2 Profiles Slide 55 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1255 Evaluation of Self-Report Personality Tests Criticisms Susceptible to potential response biases. Benefits Relatively inexpensive to administer and score. People may be more willing to disclose personal information. May be used in prediction of behavior. Slide 56 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1256 Projective Tests Unstructured or ambiguous stimuli to be interpreted. Assumption that people project needs, drives, motives through their responses. Responses must be interpreted. Slide 57 Figure 12.6: Rorschach Inkblot Slide 58 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1258 Figure 12.7: TAT Drawing Slide 59 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1259 Evaluation of Projective Tests Drawbacks Scoring of responses based on subjective impressions. Problem of stimulus pull. Questions about overall validity and utility. Contributions Tests can yield valuable information about personality unobtainable through self-report tests or interviews. Slide 60 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1260 Fig...

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