Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–1 Chapter Sixteen Social Psychology

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 161 Chapter Sixteen Social Psychology Slide 2 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 162 Did You Know That Revealing too much about yourself when first meeting someone can convey a negative impression? The Japanese are more likely than Americans to attribute their success to luck or fate than to themselves? People tend to believe that attractive people have more desirable? Slide 3 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 163 Did You Know That (cont.) In a study of police trainees, friendships were more likely to be formed among those whose names began with the same or adjacent letters of the alphabet? At least 38 people in a quiet urban neighborhood heard the screams of a woman who was viciously attacked by a knife- wielding assailant but did nothing? Slide 4 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 164 Did You Know That (cont.) The origins of prejudice may be traced back to ancestral times? Most subjects in a famous but controversial study administered what they believed to be painful and dangerous electric shocks to other subjects when instructed to do so by the experimenter? Slide 5 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 165 Module 16.1 Perceiving Others Slide 6 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 166 Module 16.1 Preview Questions What is social perception? What are the major influences on first impressions, and why do first impressions often become lasting impressions? What role do cognitive biases play in the judgments we make about the causes of behavior? Slide 7 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 167 Module 16.1 Preview Questions (cont.) What are attitudes and how are they acquired? How are attitudes related to behavior, and how do they change in response to persuasive appeals? Slide 8 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 168 Social Psychology The branch of psychology that studies how our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by our social interactions with others. Social Perception: The process by which we form impressions, make judgments, and develop attitudes about the people and events that constitute our social world. Slide 9 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 169 Impression Formation The process by which we form an opinion or impression of another person. Influenced by: Personal disclosure Social schemas Stereotypes Impressions can become self-fulfilling prophecies. Slide 10 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1610 Attributions Personal explanations about the causes of behaviors or events. Two types of attributions Dispositional Causes: Causes relating to internal characteristics or traits of individuals. Situational Causes: Causes relating to external or environmental events. Slide 11 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1611 Cognitive Biases in Attribution Fundamental attribution error Attribute behavior to internal factors Disregard external situational factors Actor-observer effect Attribute ones own behavior to external causes Attribute others behavior to internal causes Self-serving bias Attribute personal success to internal factors Attribute failure to external factors Slide 12 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1612 Attitudes A positive or negative evaluation of persons, objects, or issues. Consists of 3 components: Cognitions: set of beliefs Emotions: feelings of liking or disliking Behaviors: inclinations to act positively or negatively. Slide 13 Figure 16.1: Attitudes Slide 14 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1614 Sources of Attitudes Our social environment Heredity, through its influence on our: Intelligence Temperament Personality traits Slide 15 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1615 Attitudes and Behavior Attitudes only modestly linked to behavior Many factors limit this relationship, especially situational constraints. Slide 16 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1616 Figure 16.2: Elaboration Likelihood Model Slide 17 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1617 Figure 16.3: Getting Your Message Across: Factors in Persuasive Appeals Slide 18 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1618 Module 16.2 Relating to Others Slide 19 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1619 Module 16.2 Preview Questions What are the major determinants of attraction? What factors are linked to helping behavior? What is prejudice, and how does it develop? What can be done to reduce prejudice? What factors contribute to human aggression? Slide 20 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1620 What Is Attraction? Feelings of liking others Having positive thoughts about them Inclinations to act positively toward them Includes friendships and romantic relationships Slide 21 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1621 Determinants of Attraction Similarity Attitudes, appearance, class, race, other similarities Physical attractiveness Major determinant of initial attraction Matching hypothesis Proximity Provides more chances for interacting Reciprocity Liking others who like us back Slide 22 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1622 Helping Behavior A form of prosocial behavior. Behavior that benefits others. Motives underlying helping behavior: Altruistic motives Self-centered motives Slide 23 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1623 Figure 16.4: A Decision- Making Model of Bystander Intervention Slide 24 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1624 Figure 16.4: A Decision- Making Model of Bystander Intervention (A Closer View) Slide 25 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1625 Figure 16.4: A Decision- Making Model of Bystander Intervention (A Closer View) Slide 26 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1626 Influences on Helping Situational ambiguity Perceived cost Diffusion of responsibility Similarity Mood and gender Attributions of the cause of need Social norms Slide 27 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1627 Prejudice Preconceived attitude, usually unfavorable, formed without critical thought or evaluation of the facts. Components Cognitive: biased beliefs about other groups. Emotions: dislike toward members of other groups. Behavior: discrimination or biased/unfair treatment of people based on group membership. Slide 28 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1628 How Does Prejudice Develop? Negative stereotypes that are learned or acquired Direct experience Cognitive biases Out-group negativism In-group favoritism Out-group homogeneity Slide 29 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1629 Prejudice: Individual Differences Learning experiences Cognitive style Universalist orientation: less prejudiced Authoritarian personality style Rigidity, obedience and respect for authority Slide 30 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1630 Effects of Stereotyping and Prejudice Racism is the negative bias held toward members of other racial groups. Significant source of environmental stress for many minority group members. Stereotyping can lead to lowered expectations. Stereotypical beliefs an become internalized. Stereotype threat can lead to poorer performances. Slide 31 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1631 Figure 16.5: An Experimental Study of Stereotype Threat Slide 32 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1632 Reducing Prejudice: Allports Contact Hypothesis Reduce prejudice by bringing groups into close contact Facilitated by: Social and institutional support Acquaintance potential Equal status Intergroup cooperation Slide 33 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1633 Reducing Prejudice: Individual Efforts Teach empathy Avoid stereotypical thinking Rejecting negative thoughts Rehearsing positive images Diversity education Slide 34 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1634 Is Human Aggression Instinctual? Fighting instinct as basic survival mechanism Aggression among males used to: Establish dominance Defend territory Claim food, mates, resources Human aggression may be too complex to be based on instinct. Slide 35 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1635 Influences on Aggression Biological Influences Violent behavior and abnormal brain circuitry Male sex hormone, testosterone Inherited tendencies Learning Influences Aggressive behavior learned like other behaviors Observational learning, reinforcement Slide 36 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1636 Influences on Aggression Sociocultural Influences Violence occurs within social contexts Violence as social influence tactic Alcohol use Strongly linked to aggressive behavior Loosens inhibitions Impairs cognitions, sensitivity, perception Slide 37 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1637 Influences on Aggression Emotional Influences Frustration, anger may trigger aggression Environmental Influences Rising temperatures, more aggression Extreme high temperatures, dampen aggression Slide 38 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1638 Module 16.3 Group Influences on Individual Behavior Slide 39 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1639 Module 16.3 Preview Questions What is social identity? What was the significance of the Asch study on conformity? What are compliance techniques based upon? Why were Milgrams findings so disturbing, and why were his methods so controversial? Slide 40 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1640 Module 16.3 Preview Questions (cont.) How does the presence of others affect individual performance? What are deindividuation, group polarization, and groupthink? Slide 41 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1641 Our Social Selves Personal Identity: Involves our sense of ourselves as unique individuals. Social Identity: Involves our sense of ourselves as members of particular groups. Group identity Slide 42 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1642 Conformity Tendency to adjust ones behavior to actual or perceived social pressures. What pressures do we conform to? General social norms Group or peer norms Aschs classic study on conformity Slide 43 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1643 Figure 16.6: Stimuli Similar to Those Used in the Asch Conformity Studies Slide 44 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1644 Why Do People Conform? People assume majority must be correct. People value group acceptance more than being correct. People feel that it is easier to go along than disagree with the group. Slide 45 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1645 Influences on Conformity Gender differences Women, by a small margin, more likely to conform. Cultural differences People from collectivistic cultures tend to conform more. Personality factors Low self-esteem, shyness, desire to be liked Situational factors Slide 46 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1646 Compliance The process of acceding to the requests or demands of others. Factors influencing compliance: Appeals from a recognized authority Desire for social validation Desire for consistency Slide 47 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1647 Compliance Techniques Foot-in-the-Door Technique: Small then larger favor Bait-and-Switch Technique: Item not available as advertised Low-ball Technique: Low price becomes higher Door-in-the-Face Technique: Excessively large, then smaller request Slide 48 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1648 Obedience Compliance with commands or orders issued of others, usually authority figures. Milgrams research Teacher shocks learner Most subjects obeyed, delivering high voltage shock. Demonstrates potential for ordinary people to do harm by following authority. Slide 49 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1649 Why Do People Obey Immoral Commands? Legitimization of authority Early socialization Taught to obey authority figures Social comparison Foot-in-the-door effect Slide 50 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1650 Social Facilitation Tendency for people to work better or harder when working in the presence of others. Exposure to others induces energizing arousal. Increases performance of dominant responses. Not always correct response Slide 51 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1651 Figure 16.7: Effects of the Presence of Others Slide 52 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1652 Social Loafing Tendency for people to apply less effort working as members of a group. More likely when performance is not being evaluated. Reduced with: More appealing tasks Visibility of individual performance Individual accountability Public feedback on individual performance Slide 53 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1653 Deindividuation Loss of self-awareness that may occur when one acts in concert with the actions of a crowd. May be destructive Deviant, reckless mob behavior Results from: Anonymity in the crowd. Shifting attention from ones own thoughts and standards to the actions of the group. Slide 54 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1654 Group Decision Making Group Polarization: Tendency for group members to adopt views more extreme but in the same direction as their original views. Risky-shift phenomenon may occur Why does it occur? Social validation Normative influences Slide 55 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1655 Groupthink Tendency for members of a group to lose ability for critical evaluation. Pressure to conform prevents debate Likely with: Members strongly attached to group External threat present Strong-minded leader Slide 56 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1656 Avoiding Group Think Encourage consideration of all alternatives Group leader avoids stating preferences Outside opinions and analyses Encourage devils advocate Subdivide into independent groups Meetings to reassess and evaluate new information Slide 57 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1657 Module 16.4 Application: Psychology Goes to Work Slide 58 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1658 Module 16.4 Preview Question What are some areas of interest to industrial/organizational psychologists today? Slide 59 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1659 Industrial/Organizational Psychology Studies people at work...</p>

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