Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5–15–1 Chapter Five Learning.
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Chapter FiveLearningDid You Know ThatA major form of learning was discovered by accident?Dj-vu may be a learned response?The founder of behaviorism made his mark on the world of advertising by applying a form of learning first observed in studies of digestion in dogs?Did You Know That (contd)In an early study, a young boy learned to fear a white rat after experimenters repeatedly made loud noises by banging steel bars behind his head while the rat was present?Salivating to the sound of a tone may not be harmful, but salivating at the sight of a Scotch bottle may well be dangerous to people battling alcoholism?Did You Know That (contd)Pigeons show forms of superstitious behavior that psychologists believe are learned in much the same way as humans learn superstitious behavior?Many people develop fears of various creatures even though they have had no direct negative experiences with them?Module 5.1Classical Conditioning: Learning Through AssociationModule 5.1 Preview QuestionsWhat is learning?What is classical conditioning?What roles do extinction, spontaneous recovery, stimulus generalization, discrimination, and higher-order learning play in classical conditioning?What stimulus characteristics strengthen conditioned responses?Module 5.1 Preview Questions (cont.)What is the cognitive perspective on classical conditioning?What are some examples of classical conditioning in daily life?What is Learning?A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience.Has adaptive value.But how does learning occur?Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)Accidental discovery while studying digestive processes in dogs.Discovered form of learning now called classical conditioning.Learning by association.Figure 5.1: Pavlovs ApparatusFigure 5.2: Diagramming Classical ConditioningFigure 5.3: Strength of aConditioned ResponseFigure 5.4: Stimulus Generalization and DiscriminationFigure 5.5: Higher-Order ConditioningStimulus Characteristics that Strengthen Conditioned ResponsesFrequency of pairingsTimingIntensity of USCognitive PerspectiveRescorla: Conditioning depends on the predictive information of the CS.Conditioned stimuli help us predict events in the environment.Important survival implications.Figure 5.6: The Conditioningof Little AlbertExamples of Classical ConditioningConditioned emotional reactions (CER)PhobiasPositive emotionsDrug cravingsConditioned taste aversionsImmune system changesModule 5.2Operant Conditioning: Learning Through ConsequencesModule 5.2 Preview QuestionsWhat is Thorndikes Law of Effect?What is operant conditioning?What are the different types of reinforcers?What are schedules of reinforcement, and how do they differ?How are schedules of reinforcement related to learning?Why are psychologists concerned about the use of punishment?What are some applications of operant conditioning?Classical vs. Operant ConditioningClassical Conditioning: Learning results from the association between stimuli before a response occurs.Operant Conditioning: Learning results from the association of a response with its consequences.Figure 5.7: Thorndikes Puzzle BoxThorndikes Law of EffectThe tendency of a response to occur depends on the effects it has on the environment.Responses that have satisfying effects are strengthened and more likely to occur again.Responses that lead to discomfort are weakened and less likely to occur again.B. F. Skinner andOperant ConditioningRadical Behaviorism: Behavior is determined by environment and genetics.Free will is an illusion or myth.Organisms learn responses that operate on the environment to produce consequences.Operant conditioning or instrumental learningOperant ConditioningConsequences of a response determines the likelihood that the response will occur again.Operant Response: The response itself.Reinforcer: A stimulus or even that increases the likelihood that the behavior it follows will be repeated.Superstitious Behavior: Coincidental association of a response and a reinforcement.Figure 5.8: Discriminative Stimulusin a Skinner BoxBasic Principles of Operant ConditioningDiscriminative Stimulus: A cue that signals reinforcement is available if a particular response is made.Types of ReinforcementPositive: Reinforce by adding something pleasant.Negative: Reinforce by removing something unpleasant.Figure 5.9: Types of ReinforcersPrimary vs. Secondary ReinforcersPrimary Reinforcers: Reinforcers that are naturally rewarding because they satisfy basic biological needs or drives.Secondary Reinforcers: Reinforcers that develop their reinforcing properties because of their association with primary reinforcers.ShapingApplication of the method of successive approximations.Reinforce responses that are closer and closer to correct responseSchedules of ReinforcementWhen is reinforcement delivered?Continuous Reinforcement: Every response is reinforced.Partial Reinforcement: Only a portion of the responses is reinforced.Ratio schedules: fixed or variableInterval schedules: fixed or variableFigure 5.10: Rates of Response Under Different Schedules of Partial ReinforcementSource: Adapted from Skinner, B. F. (1961). Cumulative Record (3rd ed.) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Escape and Avoidance LearningEscape Learning: Escape an aversive stimulus by performing an operant response.Avoidance Learning: Avoid an aversive stimulus by performing an operant response.PunishmentConsequence that weakens or suppresses a responseRemoval of a reinforcing stimulusIntroduction of an aversive stimulusFigure 5.11: Types of PunishmentPunishmentOften confused with negative reinforcementHow are they different?Punishment Introduces an aversive stimulusWeakens a behaviorNegative reinforcementRemoves an aversive stimulusStrengthens a behaviorDrawbacks of PunishmentMay suppress but not eliminate undesirable behavior.Does not teach new behaviors.Can have undesirable consequences.May become abusive.May provide inappropriate modeling.Applications of Operant ConditioningBiofeedback trainingBehavior modificationToken economy programProgrammed instructionComputer-assisted instructionModule 5.3Cognitive LearningModule 5.3 Preview QuestionsWhat is cognitive learning?What is insight learning?What is latent learning?What is observational learning?Cognitive LearningLearning that occurs without the opportunity of first performing the learned response or being reinforced for it.Involves mental processes that cannot be directly observed.Insight LearningWolfgang Khlers experiment with Sultan the chimpInsight Learning: Process of mentally working through a problem until sudden realization of problem occursThe Aha! phenomenonFigure 5.12: Tolman and Honziks Study of Latent LearningLatent LearningHidden learning occurs without reinforcement.Learned behavior displayed only when reinforced.Tolman: The rats had developed a cognitive map of the maze.Mental representation of maze.Observational LearningAcquire new behaviors by imitating behaviors observed in others.Also called vicarious learning or modeling.Become capable of behaviors even before have chance to do the behaviors ourselves.Modeling influences a wide range of behavior.Module 5.4Application: Putting Reinforcement into Practice Module 5.4 Preview QuestionWhat steps are involved in applying reinforcement principles?Applying ReinforcementBe specific.Use specific language.Select a reinforcer.Explain the contingency.Apply the reinforcer.Track the desired behavior.Wean from the reinforcer.Giving PraiseMake eye contact and smile.Use hugs.Be specific.Reward effort, not outcome.Avoid repeating yourself.Dont end on a sour note.
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