Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. CHAPTER EIGHTEEN Organization Culture

Download Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. CHAPTER EIGHTEEN Organization Culture

Post on 28-Dec-2015

212 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

<ul><li><p>CHAPTER EIGHTEENOrganization Culture</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Learning ObjectivesDefine organization culture, explain how it affects employee behavior, and understand its historical rootsDescribe how to create organization cultureDescribe two different approaches to culture in organizationsIdentify emerging issues in organization cultureDiscuss the important elements of managing the organizational culture</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>The Nature of Organization CultureOrganizational Culture DefinedCulture is some set of values held by individuals in a firm that help employees understand acceptability of actionsCulture values often are taken for grantedThey are not made explicit in a manual or training programCommunication of values is done through symbolic means</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Table 18.1 Definitions of Organization Culture</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>The Nature of Organization CultureHistorical FoundationsAnthropology: Study of human culturesSociology: Study of people in social systemsSocial Psychology: Study of groups and the influence of social factors on individualsEconomics: Study of creating economic advantage</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>The Nature of Organization CultureCulture versus ClimateOrganization culture: Refers to historical context within which a situation occurs and the impact of this context on the behaviors of employeesDifficult to alter in the short-runMeans through which people in the organization learn/communicate organization acceptability (values/norms)</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>The Nature of Organization CultureCulture versus ClimateOrganization climate: Refers to current situations in an organization and the linkages among work groups, employees, and work performanceEasier for management to manipulate in order to directly affect the behavior of employees</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Creating the Organization CultureProcess of Creating an Organization: Culture-Linking Strategic-Cultural ValuesSteps in Creating Organization CultureFormulate strategic values Develop cultural valuesCreate visionInitiate implementation strategiesReinforce cultural behaviors</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Approaches to Describing Organization CultureThe Ouchi Framework*- William G. OuchiAnalyzed Three Types of FirmsTypical U.S. firmsTypical Japanese firmsType Z U.S. firms* William G. Ouchi, Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1981). </p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Approaches to Describing Organization CultureThe Ouchi Framework: William G. OuchiType Z U.S. firmsCommitted to retaining employeesEvaluate workers performance based on qualitative and quantitative informationEmphasize broad career pathsExercise control through informal/implicit mechanismsRequire that decision making occur in groupsAre committed to full information-sharingExpect individuals to take responsibility for decisionsEmphasize concern for people </p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Table 18.3 The Ouchi Framework</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Approaches to Describing Organization CultureThe Peters-Waterman* ApproachAttributes of an Excellent FirmBias for actionStay close to the customerAutonomy and entrepreneurshipProductivity through peopleHands-on managementStick to the knittingSimple form, lean staffSimultaneously loose and tight organization*Thomas J. Peters and Robert H. Waterman Jr., In Search of Excellence: Lessons from Americas Best-Run Companies (New York: Harper &amp; Row, 1982).</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Emerging Issues in Organization CultureInnovation: The process of creating and doing new things that are introduced into the marketplace as products, processes, or servicesTypesRadical innovationNew venturesCorporate research</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Emerging Issues in Organization CultureInnovation (cont.)Radical innovationMajor breakthroughs that change or create whole industriesSystems innovation: Creates a new functionality by assembling parts in new waysIncremental innovation: Continues the technical improvement and extends the applications of radical and systems innovations</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Emerging Issues in Organization CultureInnovation (cont.)Radical innovationNew venturesRequire entrepreneurship and good managementIntrapreneurship: Entrepreneurial activity that takes place within the context of a large organizationEntrepreneurs profileNeeds achievementDesires to assume responsibilityWilling to take risksFocuses on concrete results</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Emerging Issues in Organization CultureInnovation (cont.)Radical innovationNew venturesCorporate researchSupports existing businesses to provide incremental innovations and to explore potential new technology basesResponsible for keeping the companys products/ processes technologically advancedCorporate culture can be instrumental in fostering environment for creativity and innovation</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Emerging Issues in Organization CultureEmpowermentThe process of enabling workers to set their own work goals, make decisions, solve problems within their sphere of responsibility and authority</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Emerging Issues in Organization CultureAppropriate CulturesGoffee and Jones*: The nature of the value chain and the dynamism of the environment are two factors that may determine what type of culture is appropriate for a particular organization</p><p>*Rob Goffee and Gareth Jones, Organizational Culture, in Organization 21C: Someday All Organizations Will Lead This Way, et. Subir Chowdhury (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times-Prentice Hall, 2003), pp. 273-290.</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Managing Organization CultureElements of Managing Organization CultureTaking advantage of the existing cultureTeaching organization cultureChanging the organization cultureSource: Royalty Free/Triangle Images/ Getty Images</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Managing Organization CultureElements of Managing Organization CultureTaking advantage of the existing cultureEasier/faster to alter employee behaviors within the existing culture than it is to change existing history/traditions/valuesManagers must be aware/understand the organizations valuesManagers can communicate their understanding to lower-level individuals</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Managing Organization CultureElements of Managing Organization CultureTaking advantage of the existing cultureTeaching organization cultureOrganizational socialization: Process through which employees learn about the firms culture and pass their knowledge/understanding on to othersOrganizational mechanisms:Examples employees see in experienced peoples behaviorCorporate pamphlets and formal training sessions</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>Managing Organization CultureElements of Managing Organization CultureTaking advantage of the existing cultureTeaching organization cultureChanging the organization cultureManaging symbols: Substitute stories/myths that support new cultural values for those that support old onesThe difficulty of changeUpper management inadvertently reverts to old behaviorThe stability of changeNew values/beliefs are as stable/influential as old onesValue systems tend to be self-reinforcingChanging value systems requires enormous effort</p><p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.</p></li></ul>

Recommended

View more >