Chapter 12 Iran. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.12 | 2 Iran

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  • Chapter 12Iran

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.12 | *

    Iran

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.12 | *

    Iran in Comparative PoliticsIRAN IS UNIQUE Shiite theocratic republicIn a part of the world dominated by Arabs, but its NOT Arab. People are Persian and speak FarsiIran (Persia) has a grand history dating back thousands of years, most of its neighbors are post-colonial constructs

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    Iran in its historical contextPersian authoritarianism, the image Shiites have of themselves as a persecuted minority combined with a bit of early 20th century democratic thought are the long-term historical context of Iran.Irans experiences during the Cold War, the Islamic Revolution and the war with Iraq provide the short-term contextMost Iranians are too young to remember farther back than the war with IraqHow do these things affect todays regime and politics?

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    Shiism vs. Sunnism

    SHIITESSUNNISSuccessor of the Prophet Ali (Prophets son-in-law and cousin)(people of the household / Mohammad designated Ali) Abu Bakr and the caliphs (follows tradition of the prophet, Mohammad didnt designate successor) Qualifications for ruler Belong to the family of prophet, Twelve Imams & Hidden Imam (messianic)Tribe of the Prophet (Quraysh); later, any qualified ruler Demographics 10% of Muslims, Almost all Iranians, Majority in IraqLarge minority population in Syria, Yemen, Lebanon 90% of Muslims (although there are some Sufi mystics)Majority in almost all Muslim countries except Iran/Iraq. Imams are considered Infallible and perfect interpreters of Quran Human leaders Legitimacy/Authority Charismatic / Mystical Inherited Rational Legal holy cities Mecca, Medina, JerusalemNajaf, Karbala Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem

    major holidays Eid, Ashura Eid

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    Critical JuncturesThe development of Iran has been shaped by four periods which constitute critical junctures, each but the last was ruled by a particular dynasty The Safavids (1501-1722) The Qajars (1794-1925) The Pahlavis (1925-1979) Islamic Republic (1979-present)

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    The Safavids (1501-1722)Shiite Identity, Ismail established Iran as shiite state in 16th century, by mid 17th cent, 90% people shiitesTolerated the Sunnis, Jews, Zoroastrians and Christians, especially other People of the Book Isfahan capital was inland and had little access to sea based trade and little arable landAbsolute power, but reality had weak central state, empire fragmented and rulers detachedAfghan tribesmen invaded in 1722

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    The Qajars (1794-1925)Turkish group, Qajars, invades, moves capital to TehranRemain shiite, but cant claim Twelve Imam legitimacy...separation of mosque and stateHeight of European imperialism, lost some to Russia, sold oil-drilling rights to Britain, borrowed from European banks...Serious debt, frivolous lavish spendingCONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION OF 1905-1909Merchants and local industrialists demand written constitution from shahBritish wanted stability, told shah to concede

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    Constitution of 1906Modeled after western ones including democratic featuresDirect electionsSeparation of powersLaws made by an elected legislaturePopular sovereigntyBill of Rights guaranteeing citizens equality before the law, protections of accused, freedom of expressionMAJLES assembly created, guaranteed seats to People of the Book, balanced executive powerShiism still official religion and created Guardian Council of Clerics that could veto MajlesWWI divided Iran...chaos...by 1920s Anglo Iranian Oil Company enter Pahlavis

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    The Pahlavis (1925-1979)Cossack Brigade (only real army like force)Col Reza Khan leads coup and declares himself shah-in-shah...PAHLAVI DYNASTYMajles lost power, authoritarian rule1941 Muhammad Reza Shah (son) takes over...some democratic oppositionTudeh Party had working class unions, National Front (middle class Iranian nationalists) led by Muhammad Mossadeq

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    Mossadeq(Mossadegh) (1951-1953)Nationalize Anglo-Iranian oil companyConstitution, not monarchArmed forces answer to cabinet/parliamentElected Prime Minister in 1951 and nationalized oilWanted to promote education, esp women, modernize Iran, build roads, committed to secular liberalism1953 CIA financed coup reinstated shah and absolute power

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    The ShahReza PahlaviRENTIER STATEall based on oil $, didnt need taxes even or the peopleISI encouraged local industry3 pillars: armed forces, bureaucracy, royal patronage systemAll branches of the state grew imenselyState controlled banks, national radio-TV network, local govts, Majles was rubber stamping, etc. Secularized courts and extended voting to women, restricted poligamy, allowed women to workSAVAK *secret police* supported armed forces, ruthless

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    The Shah (continued)White Revolutionshahs attempt at land reform to counter communism. Used coercion, confiscations, irrigation to take land and make hiself one of the largest landowners in the Middle EastPatronage system provided jobs to build up his lavish lifestyle which became increasingly opulent and offensivePahlavi Foundationtax exempt and controlled over 200 companies, corruption galore!Resurgence Party (1975) one party state with links to population, especially bazaarisReplaces Muslim Calendar with royalist one and sends groups to teach true islam in countryside

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    REVOLUTION! 1979 Islamic RevolutionIranian exiles publish anti-shah indictiments of treason (dictatorship, collaborating with CIA and being a US puppet, SAVAK,fascist one party state, taking over clerics, disseminating Western culture and weakening Irans culture, widening gap between rich and poor, etc.Ayatollah Khomeini in exile, also anti-Shah, starts espousing Shii populism (Islamic fundamentalism, more about politics than religious conservatism).

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    Revolution of Rising Expectations$$ had been increasing through the 70s, but in the late 1970s oil prices decreased by about 10% while consumer prices increased 20% (things were better than they were, but then a setback)US and Pres Carter, who believed in human rights, put pressure on shah to loosen restraints on opposition (kind of like glasnost... Accelerated revolution)Political parties, labor organizations, professional associations, bazaaris, college students, and oil workers all united against Shah, 2 M protestors!!!!This + Khomeini and religious fervor

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    Society and Economy (continued)

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    The RevolutionPro-Khomeini clerics + National Front, Lawyers, doctors, womens associations, Tudeh Party (communist), Fedayin (Marxist guerrilla group), Mojahedin(Muslim guerrilla group of noncleric intellectuals) + students + bazaaris.This is the voice of Iran, the voice of true Iran, the voice of the Islamis RevolutionFeb 11, 1979Referendum replaced monarchy with Islamic republic, of 21 M eligible voters20 M supported this change!!!!

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    Islamic RepublicConstitution of 1979, very theocratic, most power to Supreme Leader and clergyPrime Minister Bazargan was opposition, but discredited with pic of him shaking hands with US govt officials. Anti-American sentiment and paranoia exploited.Hostage Crisis (some say engineered to undercut Bazargan)Constitution voted on...and won with 99% of vote, but voter participation down 75%

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    The Leader

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    1980s Islamic RepublicConsolidation of Power...Ayatollah Khomeinis charisma and popularityIraq-Iran War (1980-1988) rallied people to defend homelandPrices of oil increased!Cultural Revolution (mao style) purify country from secular, western behaviors. Universities cleared of liberal, suppressed opposition (most civil society), many executions revolutionary justice

    1989 Khomeini dies, successor Khamenei not as charismatic, nor does he have folliowing or is he considered highly by most grand ayatollahs. Iran Iraq war bankrupted country and demoralized, oil prices decreasing, people wanted more participation, less cleric power, clerics seen as more corrupt.

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    Whos Who in Islamic Iran?Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini1902, landed clerical family1920s, studies in Qom, taught at seminary 30s-50s, apolitical even during Mossadegh1962politicized denouncing shahs White Revolution, forced into exile, went to NajafShii Populism, socioeconomic grievances, denounced shah and ruling class for oppressing and exploiting masses,New interpretation of jurist guardianship giving himself major authorityImam and leader

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    Ayatollah Ali KhameneiStudied theology under Khomeini in Qom, briefly imprisoned in 1962.Anti-shah opposition movement 1978, had several influential positions after the revolution, but only middle level clerical rank.Friday prayer leader of Tehran & head of Revolutionary GuardsWasnt a grand ayatollah or recognized sharia expert, surprising Appointment as Supreme Leader.Built a conservative constituency with regimes diehard elements.Pre-1989, uses a pipe (intellectual), gave up when he became the Leader.

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    Hojjat Al-Islam Ali Akbar Hashemi RAFSANJANIBorn into fairly prosperous business and farming family.Studied in Qom under Khomeini.In prison 4 times during 1960s.Set up several commercial companies, including pistachioExports.Wrote a book about 19th century Prime minister who had triedto industrialize Iran.Remained just active enough in clerical circles to be considered hojjat al-Islam.Close confidant of Khomeini and cabinet posts, president in 1989. Chair of the Expediency Council and Assembly of Religious Experts, very powerful.Ran for president in 2005 as a reformer, portrayed by AhmadinejadAs being elitist, cronyism, corrupt mullah guilty of luxury living, etc.

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    Sayyid Muhammad KhatamiElected president in 1997 and reelected in 2000Born in 1944, priminent clerical familyFather was an ayatollah and friend of Khomeini, mom was from a rich landed familyStudied at Qom and philosophy at Isfahan U1979-Shii mosque in GermanyHeaded state publishing house, member of Majles, minister of culture and Islamic guidance1992conservatives angry, resigned and taught philosophy at Tehran UnivTitle: sayyid and wears black turbanBut really more like a university prof interested in liberal political philosophyTEHRAN SPRING!

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    Mahmoud AhmadinejadPopulist, son of a blacksmith (like the Iranian Robin Hood)Working class, non-cleric, successful because he passed university exams and volunteered to fight in Iraq-Iran warAsserts theocratic values, appeals to Iranian nationalism (anti-US & Israel speech)Mayor of tehran before President, revolutionary guard

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    Mir Hossein MoussaviIranian reformist politician, painter, architect, and presidential candidate in 2009.Leader of the Green Revolution.Prime Minister of Iran 1981-1989, until reforms eliminated position. Also Minister of Foreign Affairs.In early years of Revolution, he was editor of the Islamic newspaper.As PM, played a role in Iran-Contra affair...When Rafsanjani won as President in 1989, Moussavi exited politics, not invited to join new administration.Ran for President as a Principled Reformist as he shares many conservative values.

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    Policymaking FactionsConservative vs. ReformistConservatives: uphold regime as set up in 1979 with strict sharia law and minimum of modern modifications, worry about western influence and modernization. Support theocracy and clerics running politics.Reformists: political system needs reform, elss wary of western influence, want some international involvement. Support Shiism, but support the idea that political leaders dont have to be clerics.

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    Policymaking Factions (cont)Statists vs. Free-marketersThis cleavage cuts across conservatives and reformers and changed meaning over years.Statists: govt should take an active role in economy (land/weath redistribution, eliminating unemployment, price ceilings on consumer goods...populism..think Cardenas in 1930s and Russia & China, but not necessarily communists, esp in Iran.Free marketers: remove price controls, lower business taxes, private enterprise, balance budget...free market capitalism within a theocratic/democratic state.

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    Policy-making Factions (cont)Majmu eh: Statist reformers or populistsJameh: Laissez-faire (freemarket) conservatives.

    Radicals get lower class support by using state power to redistribute wealth, welfare state...like AhmadinejadIn recent years talk about democratic over theocratic features, rule of law, individual rights, and government accountabilityeven Ahmadinejad.Conservative free marketers want to get middle class support, in bazaars by removing price controls, etc. Even at the cost of sacrificing subsidies and social programs

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    Political Parties in IranConstitution gives right to organize and allows Interior Ministry to license partiesMost real party opposition is in EXILE.

    LIBERATION MOVEMENT (Mehdi Bazargan), moderate Islamic party, secular and favors separation of Mosque and stateNATIONAL FRONT, remains committed to nationalism and secularism like MossadeqMOJAHEDIN, 1971 guerrilla org to fight shah, synthesis of Marxism and Islam (Shii islam can be a radical religion favoring social justice), after revolution opposed clerical regime and mass executions, moved to IraqFedayin, 1971 Marxist guerrilla movemtn like Che, lost more than any other org in fight against shah, lots of urban sup...

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