Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4–14–1 Chapter Four Consciousness.

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  • Chapter FourConsciousness

  • Did You Know ThatDividing your attention between driving and using a car phone is about as dangerous as driving with a blood alcohol level at the legal limit?Body temperature does not remain at a steady 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit throughout the day?The eye is sensitive to changes in light even in people without sight?

  • Did You Know That (cont.)People with narcolepsy may be holding a conversation one moment and collapse on the floor the next, fast asleep?The average college student spends more money on alcohol than on textbooks?It can be dangerous indeed deadly to let a person who blacks out from drinking too much to sleep it off?

  • Did You Know That (cont.)Coca-Cola once contained cocaine.You may be hooked on a drug you have with breakfast every morning?

  • Module 4.1States of Consciousness

  • Module 4.1 Preview QuestionWhat are states of consciousness?

  • States of ConsciousnessWilliam James: Described consciousness as a stream of thoughtsTodays View: Consciousness is a state of awareness of ourselves and of the world around us.

  • States of ConsciousnessFocused Awareness: A heightened state of alert wakefulness.Drifting Consciousness: Characterized by drifting thoughts or mental imagery.Daydreaming: Ones mind wanders to dreamy thoughts or fantasies during a waking state.Divided Consciousness: Characterized by dividing attention to 2 or more tasks or activities performed at the same time.

  • States of UnconsciousnessStates in which we are relatively unaware of our external surroundings.Altered States of Consciousness: States of awareness that differ from ones usual waking state.

  • Module 4.2Sleeping and Dreaming

  • Module 4.2 Preview QuestionsHow are our sleep-wake cycles regulated?What are the stages of sleep, and what functions does sleep serve?Why do we dream?What are sleep disorders?

  • Circadian RhythmThe pattern of fluctuation in bodily processes that occur regularly each day.Sleep-wake cycle operates on a circadian rhythm which is close to 24 hours in length.Cycle is regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus.Jet lag is a disruption of sleep-wake cycles.

  • Figure 4.1: Brain Wave Patterns During Wakefulness and SleepSource: From "Behavior effects of blood alcohol levels" by O. Ray & C. Ksir, Drugs, society, & human behavior, 5/e Copyright 1990 Times Mirror/Mosby College Publishing

  • Figure 4.2: REM Sleep Through the Night

  • Figure 4.3: Average Length of Sleep Among Different Mammals

  • Why Do We Sleep?Protective functionEnergy conservationRestore bodily processesMay bolster immune system

  • Why Do We Dream?May help to consolidate memories and new learning.May help in problem solving.May represent attempt by the cerebral cortex to make sense of random discharges of electrical activity occurring during REM sleep.Activation-synthesis hypothesis

  • Figure 4.4: Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis

  • Freud and DreamsDreams represent form of wish fulfillment.Royal road to the unconsciousManifest Content of Dream: Events that occur in the dream.Latent Content of Dream: True, underlying meaning of the dreamDisguised in the form of dream symbols

  • Figure 4.5: Changes in SleepPatterns in Childhood

  • Impact of Sleep DeprivationSlowed reaction timesImpaired concentration, memory, problem solvingDifficulty learning new informationImpaired academic performanceAccidentsWeakened immune system

  • Figure 4.6: Motor Vehicle Accidents in Relation to Time of DaySource: Adapted from AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 1996

  • Sleep DisordersInsomniaNarcolepsy: sleep attacksSleep apneaNightmare disorderSleep terror disorderSleepwalking disorder

  • Module 4.3Altering Consciousness Through Meditation and Hypnosis

  • Module 4.3 Preview QuestionsWhat is meditation?What is hypnosis?What are the major theories of hypnosis?

  • MeditationA process of focused attention that induces a relaxed, contemplative state.In transcendental meditation (TM), person focuses attention by repeating a particular mantra.Why meditate?Relax body and mind.Expand consciousness, awareness, peacefulness.

  • HypnosisAltered state of consciousness characterized by:Focused attentionDeep relaxationHeightened susceptibility to suggestionVaried techniques for inducing hypnosis

  • Hypnotic ExperiencesHypnotic age regressionHypnotic analgesiaDistortions of realityPosthypnotic amnesiaPosthypnotic suggestion

  • Theories of HypnosisTrance state characterized by suggestibilityRole-playing modelHilgards neodissociation theoryDissociated consciousnessHidden observer

  • Figure 4.7: Perception of PainDuring Hypnosis

  • Characteristics of Highly Hypnotizable PeopleWell-developed fantasy lifeVivid sense of imaginationTendency to be forgetfulPositive attitude toward hypnosis

  • Module 4.4Altering Consciousness Through Drugs

  • Module 4.4 Preview QuestionsWhen does drug use cross the line from use to abuse and dependence?What are the different types of psychoactive drugs, and what effects do they have?What factors contribute to alcohol and drug-abuse problems?What treatment alternatives are available to help people with drug problems?

  • Psychoactive DrugsChemical substances that act on the brain to affect emotional or mental states.Used for a variety of reasons.Change level of alertness.Alter mental states.Blunt awareness of the stresses and strains of daily life.To seek some type of inner truth.

  • Figure 4.8: Rates of Drug Usein the United StatesSource: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health. (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, and ethnicity: A supplement to Mental health: A Report of the SurgeonExecutive summary. General Rockville, MD: Author.

  • Drug AbuseAbuse when repeated use causes or aggravates personal, occupational, or health-related problems.Polyabusers abuse more than one drug at a time.

  • Drug DependenceSevere drug-related problem characterized by impaired control over the use of the drug.Usually, but not always associated with physiological dependence.Signs include withdrawal syndrome & toleranceDrug addiction is dependence accompanied by signs of physiological dependence.

  • Psychological DependencePattern of compulsive or habitual use of a drug to satisfy a psychological need.

  • Major Classes of Psychoactive DrugsDepressantsStimulantsHallucinogens

  • AlcoholA disinhibiting intoxicant.Disturbs balance and motor skills, slurred speech, impairs judgment, concentration, and attention

  • Figure 4.9:Alcohol Use and Causes of Death

  • AlcoholismA chemical addiction characterized by impaired control over the use of alcohol and physiological dependence on it.Only about 5% fit skid-row stereotype.Typically develops between ages of 20 and 40.Can lead to physiological damage.

  • Binge DrinkingDefined as having 5+ (for men) or 4+ (for women) drinks on one occasion.Patterns of early drinking and binge drinking predictors of later alcoholism.Binge drinkers 3x more likely to engage in unsafe or unplanned sex.Creates risk of death from alcohol overdose.Blackouts and seizures can occur.

  • BarbituratesDrugs that have calming or sedating effects.Can induce drowsiness, slurred speech, impairment.Examples: Amobarbital, pentobarbital, phenobarbitalOverdoses can lead to convulsions, coma, and death.

  • TranquilizersWidely used to treat anxiety and insomnia.Less toxic than barbiturates, but still can be dangerous.Examples: Valium, Xanax, HalcionCan lead to physiological or psychological dependence.

  • OpioidsA narcotic because has pain-relieving, sleep-inducing properties.Produces euphoric rush, dampens awareness.Has legitimate medical uses.

  • StimulantsDrugs that heightens activity of the central nervous system.Can produce both physiological and psychological dependence.TypesAmphetaminesCocaineMDMA (Ecstasy)NicotineCaffeine

  • Figure 4.10: Who Smokes?Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001.

  • Figure 4.11: Sources of Caffeine

  • HallucinogensDrugs that alter sensory perceptions.Not known to lead to physiological dependence.But can lead to psychological dependence.TypesLSDMescaline, psilocybin, and PCPMarijuana

  • Drug AbuseSocial and cultural factorsGenetic factorsRole of neurotransmittersChanges in biochemistry of brainSuppressed production of endorphinsPsychological factorsCognitive factors

  • Figure 4.12: Ethnicity and Drug UseSource: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001.

  • Drug TreatmentMost effective treatment programs use a wide variety of approaches.DetoxificationFollow-up services, counselingTherapeutic drugsSelf-help programs

  • Module 4.5Application: Getting Your Zs

  • Module 4.5 Preview QuestionWhat steps can you take to combat insomnia?

  • Healthy Sleep HabitsAdopt a regular sleep schedule.Dont try to force sleep.Establish a regular bedtime routine.Establish proper cues for sleeping.Avoid tossing and turning.Avoid daytime naps.Dont take problems to bed.Use mental imagery.Adopt a regular exercise program.Limit intake of caffeine.Practice rational self-talk.

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