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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *This CoursePhysics, Geology, Meteorology, and AstronomyAttempts to describe the physical world in which we liveMeasurements movement, temperature, weather conditions, time, etc.Constant use of measurements many examples in book.Can everything be measured w/ certainty??As smaller and smaller objects were measured it became apparent that the act of measuring distorted the object.Section 1.1

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Scientific LawScientific Law after a series of experiments a concise statement (words/math) about a relationship/regularity of natureExample Law of Conservation of Mass (no gain or loss during chemical reaction)The law simply states the finding, but does not explain the behavior.Section 1.2

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *HypothesesHypothesis tentative explanation(s) of the relationship/regularity in natureExample: Matter consists of small particles (atoms) that simply rearrange themselvesA good hypothesis must suggest new experiments that serve to test its validity.The hypothesis is supported if it correctly predicts the experimental results Section 1.2

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *TheoryTheory tested explanation for a broad segment of basic natural phenomenaExample: Atomic Theory This theory has withstood testing for 200+ years and continues to correctly predict atomic behavior.Section 1.2

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Standard Units and Systems of UnitsExpressed in magnitude and unitsFundamental Physical Quantities length, mass, time, and electric chargeStandard Unit fixed and reproducible value to take accurate measurements

    Section 1.4

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Standard Units and Systems of Units continuedTwo major systems of unitsBritish (English) system only used widely in the United States (miles, inches, pounds, seconds, etc.)International System of Units (Metric system) used throughout most of the world (kilometers, meters, grams, etc.)The U.S. officially adopted the metric system in 1893, but continues to use the British system.Section 1.4

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Metric SystemUses acronym mks system from standard units of length, mass, and time meter, kilogram, secondIt is a decimal (base-10) system this is much better than the British systemAdministered by -- Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in ParisInternational System of Units (SI)Contains seven base unitsSection 1.5

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Modern Metric System (SI)The base units are a choice of seven well-defined units which by convention are regarded as dimensionally independent: meter, m (length)kilogram, kg (mass)second, s (time)ampere, A (electrical current)kelvin, K (temperature)mole, mol (amount of a substance)candela, cd (luminous intensity) Section 1.5

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Base-10 ConvenientEasy expression and conversionMetric examples vs. British examples1 kilometer = 1000 meters1 mile = 5280 feet1 meter = 100 centimeters1 yard = 3 feet or 36 inches1 liter = 1000 milliliters1 quart = 32 ounces or 2 pints1 gallon = 128 ouncesSection 1.5

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Unit CombinationsWhen a combination of units becomes complex and frequently used it is given a name. Examples:newton (N) = kg x m/s2joule (J) = kg x m2/s2 watt (W) = kg x m2/s3 Section 1.6

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Significant FiguresSignificant figures (SF) a method of expressing measured numbers properlyA mathematical operation, such as multiplication, division, addition, or subtraction cannot give you more significant figures than you start with.For example, 6.8 has two SF and 1.67 has three SF.Section 1.7

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *When we use hand calculators we may end up with results like: 6.8/1.67 = 4.0718563Are all these numbers significant?Section 1.7

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Rounding off Numbers ExamplesRound off 0.0997 to two SF0.0997 0.10What about this? 5.0 x 356 = 1780Round off 1780 to 2 SF 1780 1800Section 1.7

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Powers-of-10 Notation (Scientific Notation)Many numbers are very large or very small it is more convenient to express them in powers-of-10 notation1,000,000 = 10x10x10x10x10x10 = 106Section 1.7

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Scientific Notation10000 = 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 1041000 = 10 x 10 x 10 = 103100 = 10 x 10 = 10210 = 101 1 = 100

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Scientific Notation0.1 = 1/10 = 1/101 = 10-10.01 = 1/100 = 1/102 = 10-20.001 = 1/1000 = 1/103 = 10-30.0001 = 1/10000 = 1/104 = 10-4

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Scientific NotationThe distance to the sun can be expressed many ways:93,000,000 miles93 x 106 miles9.3 x 107 miles0.93 x 108 milesAll four are correct, but 9.3 x 107 miles is the preferred format.Section 1.7

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Cartesian CoordinatesA two-dimensional system is one in which two lines are drawn perpendicular with an origin assigned at the point of intersection.Horizontal line = x-axisVertical line = y-axisThe system we commonly use is the Cartesian coordinate system, named after the French philosopher/mathematician Ren Descartes (1596-1550).

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Cartesian Coordinates Two Dimensionalx number gives the distance from the y-axis.y number gives the distance from the x-axis.Many cities are laid out in a Cartesian pattern with streets running N-S & E-W.

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *LatitudeLatitude - the angular measurement in degrees north and south of the equatorThe latitude angle is measured from the center of the earth relative to the equator.Lines of equal latitude are circles drawn on the surface and parallel to the equator.

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *LongitudeLongitude is the angular measurement, in degrees, east or west of the reference meridian, the Prime Meridian (0o) at Greenwich, England.A large optical telescope was located there.Maximum value of 180o E or W

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *TimeTime - the continuous forward flowing of eventsThe continuous measurement of time requires the periodic movement of some object as a reference.The second has been adopted as the international unit of time.Vibration of the cesium-133 atom now provides the reference of a second 9,192,631,770 cycles per second

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *DaysApparent Solar Day the elapsed time between two successive crossings of the same meridian (line of longitude) by the sun (361o)Sidereal Day the elapsed time between two successive crossings of the same meridian by a star other than the sun (360o)

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Diagrams of Sun's Position (Degrees Latitude) at Four Different Times of the Year

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1| *Two Different YearsTropical Year the time interval from one vernal equinox to the next vernal equinox 365.2422 mean solar daysThe elapsed time between 1 northward crossing of the sun above the equator to the next northward crossing.Sidereal year the time interval for earth to make one complete revolution around the Sun with respect to any particular star other than the sun 365.2536 mean solar days20 minutes longer than the tropical year

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  • Copyright Houghton Miffl

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