Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 14-1 Assessment of Classroom Learning.

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  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*Assessment of Classroom Learning

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • OverviewThe role of assessment in teaching Ways to measure student learningWays to evaluate student learningImproving your grading methods: Assessment practices to avoidTechnology for classroom assessmentCopyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • What is Assessment?Classroom assessment involves two major types of activities:Collecting information about how much knowledge and skill students have learned (measurement)Making judgments about the adequacy or acceptability of each students level of learning (evaluation)Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Why Should We Assess Student Learning?Summative evaluation To provide summaries of student performanceFormative evaluationTo monitor student progressDiagnosisTo diagnose specific strengths and weakness in an individuals learningEffects on learningTo motivate further learningCopyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Ways to Measure Student LearningWritten testsSelected-response testsShort-answer testsEssay testsPerformance testsDirect writing assessmentsPortfoliosExhibitionsDemonstrations14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Written TestsCopyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Five Attributes of a Useful Classroom Test Significance TeachabilityDescribabilityReportabilityNonintrusiveness14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • What are performance tests?Performance tests requireStudents to use a wide range of knowledge and skills over an extended period of time to complete a task or solve a problem under more or less realistic conditions.Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Performance TestsCopyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Characteristics of Performance TestsEmphasis on active respondingDegree of realismEmphasis on complex problemsClose relationship between teaching and testingUse of scoring rubricsUse of formative evaluationResponsiveness to cultural diversityCopyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Scoring Rubric for a Group Oral PresentationCopyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Scoring Rubric for a Group Oral PresentationCopyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Scoring Rubric for a Group Oral PresentationCopyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Concerns about Performance TestsTime consumingHarder to explain relationship between scoring and letter gradesNew responsibilities for teachers and studentsDifferent purposes for traditional and performance testsReliability and validityCopyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Ways to Evaluate Student LearningNorm-referenced gradingSystem assumes that classroom achievement will naturally vary among a group of heterogeneous students because of student differences as so compares the score of each student to the scores of the other students in order to determine grades.Criterion-referenced gradingSystem in which grades are determined on the basis of whether each student has attained a defined standard of achievement or performance.Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Strengths and Weaknesses of Norm-Referenced GradingStrengthsSystem is useful for evaluating advanced levels of learning.System is useful for selecting students for limited-enrollment programs.WeaknessesThere are few situations in which the typical public school teacher can appropriately use it.Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Strengths and Weaknesses of Criterion-Referenced GradingStrengthsProvides more specific and useful information about student strengths and weaknesses.Promotes the motivation to learn because it holds out the promise that all students can master most of a teachers objectives.WeaknessesPerformance standards are arbitrary and may be difficult to justify.Standards may fluctuate as a result of unnoticed variation.

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Elements of a Mastery Approach to GradingGo through a unit and pick out what you consider to be the most important points.List these points in some type of outline or structure.Distribute the outline at the beginning of a unit and emphasize its importance for testing.Consider making up a study guide related to the outline for students to organize notes. Use a variety of instructional methods and materials to explain and illustrate outline-related ideas.Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Elements of a Mastery Approach to GradingMake up exam questions based on the outline and study guide questions. Arrange these questions into at least two (preferably three) alternate exams for each unit of study.Make up tentative criteria for grade levels for each exam and for the entire unit or report period. Test students either when they come to you and indicate they are ready or when you feel they have all had ample opportunity to learn the material.Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Elements of a Mastery Approach to GradingGrade and return the exams as promptly as possible, go over questions briefly in class, and offer to go over exams individually with students.Schedule alternate exams and make yourself available for consultation and tutoring the day before.If students improve their score on the second exam but still fall below the desired criterion, consider a safety valve option.To supplement exams, assign book reports, oral reports, papers, or some other kind of individual work that will provide maximum opportunity for student choice.Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Inappropriate Testing and Grading PracticesWorshiping averagesUsing zeros indiscriminatelyProviding insufficient instruction before testingTeaching for one thing but testing for anotherUsing pop quizzes to motivate studentsKeeping the nature and content of the test a secretKeeping the criteria for assignments a secretShifting criteria Combining apples and oranges (Guskey, 2002; Haladyna, 1999; Hills, 1991; Nitko, 2004)Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

  • Technology for Classroom AssessmentElectronic gradebooks and grading programsTechnology-based performance assessmentDigital portfoliosCopyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-*

    Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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