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They believed in one God who set down moral laws for His people. They recorded their history in the Hebrew Bible. Ancient Israelites

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Ancient Israelites. They believed in one God who set down moral laws for His people. They recorded their history in the Hebrew Bible. Ancient Israel. Who were the Israelites?. Monotheism Spoke Hebrew Judaism – Jews Influenced Christianity and Islam - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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They believed in one God who set down moral laws for His people. They recorded their history in the Hebrew Bible.Ancient Israelites

Ancient Israel

Monotheism Spoke HebrewJudaism JewsInfluenced Christianity and IslamHelped shape beliefs and practices of societies in Europe and AmericaHebrew languageWrote down their history and religious beliefs in the Hebrew Bible known as the Old TestamentHerders and tradersCame from Mesopotamia to Canaan (present day Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan)Descendents of Abraham

Who were the Israelites?

God (Yahweh) told him to leave Mesopotamia and go to Canaan.Gods promise (covenant)Lived in Canaan for 100 years then a drought occurred and some went to Egypt

Abraham

Abraham was the first patriarch of the Israelites. He is revered by Jews, Muslims, and Christians alike.6Abrahams grandsonAlso called Israel means one who struggles with GodLater given to his descendants12 sons divided into tribes (12 tribes of Israel)

Jacob

Israelites were enslaved to build pyramids for the Pharaoh.Baby boys Nile RiverMoses tended sheepBurning bush10 plagues

From Slavery to FreedomSpirituals and other songs form the period when African Americans were enslaved in the USA often speak of getting to the Promised Land. Discuss the meaning of this expression and what it might have had for the enslaved persons. Why was it particularly appropriate? How did their condition compare to that of the Israelites in Egypt? Remind students that Harriet Tubman was sometimes referred to as Moses. Why was this name suitable for her?8MosesAn illustrated story of Moses

9The Story of Moses

Jews, Christians, and Muslims, all revere Moses as a great prophet. He is considered the greatest prophet in Judaism and he is the most frequently cited individual in the Qur'an. (Ishmael Instructs Isaac, pg.132). Although there are some differences, the basic Story of Moses and his role in the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt is very similar in the Torah, The Bible and The Qur'an. In all three books, we watch the maturation of a man as he develops the qualities and leadership skills to bring together a group of squabbling individuals into a nation of united people with a common goal.

This king saw how the Hebrew children were increasing in number, and he was afraid that some day there would be more Hebrews than Egyptians. So what do you suppose he did? Why, he made slaves of all the Hebrews and put cruel masters over them to make them work very, very hard. Perhaps he thought this would cause them to die young, and that soon there wouldn't be nearly as many Hebrews. But God was with the Hebrews. He had made wonderful promises to Abraham and to Isaac and to Jacob, and to all of Jacob's sons. These promises belonged to all the Hebrews. They were God's people, and God won't let anybody kill all of his people. Besides, God will bring back to life all the Hebrews who have died, and everybody else, too, for that matter. You see, God always keeps his promises, and no one can really interfere with what God wants done. That's a very important thing to remember. Making slaves of the Hebrews didn't stop. them from increasing in number, so the king of Egypt ordered that all the boy babies of the Hebrews should be killed as soon as they were born. They were to be thrown into the river Nile and drowned. Wasn't that awful?

Moses was sent down a river in a basket because Pharaoh had ordered all Jewish male children to be drowned in the Nile River. The Torah and The Bible tell us that The Pharaohs daughter discovers Moses in his basket. Miriam, Moses sister steps out of hiding and asks the Pharaohs daughter if she would like a Hebrew woman to nurse the baby. The princess says yes and Miriam calls Moses mother. She raises him till his teen years when she brings him to Pharaohs daughter, at which time she names him Moses.

When Moses was a bit older he comes across an Egyptian beating a Hebrew. Defending his kinsman, Moses strikes and kills the Egyptian. Moses realizes that others know he has killed an Egyptian. When Pharaoh learns of the murder, he orders Moses killed. Moses flees to Midian. It is here that Moses rescues the daughter of the local priest of Midian, named Reuel but known as Jethro. Moses marries his daughter, Zipporah who gives birth to a son named Gershom.

Many years later Pharaoh dies and the Israelites cried out to God to free them from bondage.

Moses, while tending his flock comes across a blazing bush that wondrously is not consumed by the flame. The Lord calls to him and tells him to remove his sandals and Moses, afraid to look at God, hides his face. God calls to Moses telling him to return to Egypt to free the Israelites from bondage. Moses fears that no one will believe him. In The Torah and The Bible God tells him to say that his name is Ehyeh-Asher-Ehyeh, which means, I will be what I will be. He further says the he is The God of your fathers, of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob. (Exodus 3:15) Moses expresses doubts and God reassures Moses that he will succeed and that the Israelites will believe God has sent him. God demonstrates to Moses how he will convince the people by turning Moses stick into a snake, his skin to leprosy, and promises that if the Israelites still do not believe him that he should take water from the Nile, pour it into the sand and it will turn to blood. Moses continues to protest that he is not deserving because he is slow of speech. God assures him that his brother Aaron will be his mouthpiece.

Moses meets his brother Aaron in the dessert and together they return to Egypt. In Egypt Moses shows the signs God gave him and the Israelites believe him. Moses and Aaron approach pharaoh and tell him that their God has ordered Israelites to celebrate a festival in the wilderness. Pharaoh says no and responds by doubling their workload. The Israelites in their anger blame Moses and Aaron for their extra work. Moses asks God why he is bringing harm to his people and God reassures him that everything will be all right. God once again sends Moses to reassure the Israelites that he speaks for the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and that through a series of signs he will convince Pharaoh to let the Israelites leave Egypt. So once again Moses and Aaron approach Pharaoh and ask him to let the Israelites go. God hardens Pharaohs heart and Pharaoh refuses. A series of 10 plagues are released upon Egypt. 1) All the waters in Egypt are turned to blood and all the fish die. 2) Frogs infest Egypt. 3)Lice crawl over every man, woman and beast that lived in the land 4) A cloud of insects attack the people. 5) A severe pestilence strikes the livestock of the Egyptians. 6) Egyptian people are covered in boils. 7) Thunder, hail and fire stuck the land of the Egyptians. 8) Locusts cover the sky and fields. 9)Darkness falls for 3 days. 10) Every first-born Egyptian child dies including Pharaohs son. Finally, Pharaoh is convinced and the Israelites leave Egypt.

After the Israelites depart, God once again hardens Pharaoh's heart and Pharaoh sends an army after the Jews. Once again the Israelites blame Moses for their hardships. Moses reassures them and strikes the sea with his staff and the sea opens up a path of dry land for them to cross. As the Egyptians begin to cross, God orders Moses to stretch out his hand and the dry path closes and drowns the Egyptians.

The Israelites wandered in the Sinai desert for 40 years. All three religions teach that this time in a desolate environment was necessary for the Israelites to be tested and to find for themselves their faith in God. Again, when they become hungry and thirsty they turn on Moses and blame him for their woes. When they complained of no meat, God provided quail. When they complained of no bread, manna fell from heaven. When they complain of no water, God tells Moses to strike his staff against a rock and water comes pouring out. After three months the Israelites arrived at the foot of the holy mountain of Sinai. A cloud encompasses the mountain and God descends into the cloud. God calls to Moses and Moses climbs up the mountain. God speaks and delivers to Moses the Ten Commandments. Since Moses is gone for a long time, the people begin to lose faith and want to make a God of their own. In the Torah and Bible, Aaron tells them to bring all the gold jewelry they have, and cast it into a mold. Aaron molds it into a golden calf, and the people worship this golden calf. When Moses returns he is infuriated. He throws down the tablets and they shatter. Then he takes the calf that the people made and burns it. He grinds the calf to powder and puts it into the peoples water, and makes them drink it. Once again, he goes up the mountain and writes down the commandments.

The Jews continue to wander through the desert toward the Promised Land for the remainder of the 40 years. Moses is allowed to see the Promised Land but not enter. He climbs to the top of Mt. Nebo, which overlooks Canaan. God says, This is the land which I swore to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. I will give it to your offspring. I have let you see it with your own eyes, but you shall not cross there. (Deuteronomy 34:4)

Turn Water to bloodFrogsLiceFliesDisease on livestockBoils HailLocustsDarknessDeath of 1st born of all Egyptian humans and animalsExodus 7:19 -11:5

10 Plagues10th plague---how could you save your firstborn?10

Known as the ExodusPassover, Jewish holiday celebrates this eventParting of the Red SeaScholars disagree about where the Israelites might have crossed the Red Sea. Some believe the name for the Red Sea was incorrectly translated long ago and the correct reference is to the Sea of Reeds a marshy, inland lake north of the Red Sea proper.13Sinai DesertMount Sinai where Moses received laws from God or the TorahJourney to Canaan

Later became the 1st part of the Hebrew BibleTorah described a covenant (agreement) with God in which God promised to return the Israelites to Canaan if they followed His laws.Explained what God considered to be right and wrongTen Commandments

Torah

Shaped basic moral laws of many nationsHelped develop a belief in the rule of law idea that laws should apply to everyone equallyExodus 20:1-17Ten CommandmentsHow many of the commandments tell people how to interact with other people?6 (commandments 5-10)How many tell them how to worship and show respect for God?4 (commandments 1-4)Ten Commandments

17A gold-plated wooden box (acacia wood)45 long and 27 wide and 27 deep4 gold rings on corners with 2 gold rings on side where poles of acacia wood overlaid in gold were used to carry itContents: stone tablets on which the Ten Commandments were carved, a golden pot of manna from the wilderness journey, and Aarons rod Most sacred artifact of the Israelites

Ark of the Covenant

40 years Moses never lived to see it.Joshua new leaderHad to fight to regain itJericho marched around walls for 6 days while 7 priests blew their trumpetson 7th day trumpets blew one last time and Israelites raise a great shout3 more warsLand divided by 12 tribesThe Promised LandLeadershipUsually a military leaderCommanded 1 or 2 tribes (seldom all 12)Barak, Gideon, Samuel, Eli, Samson, and others including DeborahDeborah told Barak to attack the army of the Canaanite king Jabin and went along to battlefield as an adviser.King Jabin was destroyed around 1125 B.C.Walled towns for protectionCreated an alphabetJudgesPhoenicians were skilled sailors and traders (with Greece, Spain, and western Africa).Spread ideas and goods like an alphabetAlphabet made writing simpler and easier to keep records.Brought the idea to Greeks who passed it on to the Romans which is the basis for most Western alphabets

Phoenician Alphabet

ReviewWhy was the religion of Israel unique in the ancient world?What is the Torah, and how did the Israelites obtain it?What was the importance of the Phoenician alphabet?What problems did the Israelites face when they returned to Canaan?Which one of the Ten Commandments do you think is most important today? 1. Unlike most other religions it had only one God 2. The Torah is the collection of laws which God gave to Moses on top of Mount Sinai 3. it made writing simpler and helped in keeping records 4. the Israelites had to fight a number of wars to get back part of the lands of Canaan from the Canaanites who lived there. 23Jewish IdeasBelief in one godTen CommandmentsHebrew BibleBelief that God gave Canaan to the JewsCreation of the kingdom of Israel; its great kings (Saul, David, and Solomon); and the challenges Israel facedThe Kingdom of IsraelThe Israelites choose a KingSimilar to Philistines, strongest people living in Canaan who had strong cities and knew how to make iron tools and weapons B/c they copied the Philistines, they felt they needed a king as well. (believed it would unite them against their enemies)

How would I feel if I were forced to leave my home, family, and friends? What difference can a good leader make to a team or group? What kinds of things do I feel proud about?261020 B.C. Samuel asked to choose a king.What is a prophet?Samuels warningSamuel anointed their choice, Saul (warrior-farmer) as king. What does this mean?Saul tall, handsome, and had won many battlesSaul disobeyed some of Gods commands.Samuel was instructed by God to anoint a new king (David) in secret.The Rule of SaulProphet is a person who the ancient Israelites thought was instructed by God.Warning a king would tax them and make them slaves. Anoint - blessed him with oil to show that God had chosen him.

27Known for his bravery and leadership David and GoliathPut in charge of army by SaulSaul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands.Took throne in 1000 B.C.Drove Philistines from the areaCreated an empireTributeHeavy taxes to expand Israels capital, Jerusalem.templeDavid

Who do you think was most important in American history? King David was most important to the history of the Jewish people. David shepherds staff, a slingshot, and five smooth stones --- Goliath. Read page 88 in textbook.How do you think that quote made Saul feel? What did Saul plot to do to David? David hid out in enemy territory until Saul and his 3 sons were killed in battle.Empire is a nation that rules several other nations. Conquered peoples had to pay David tribute, or money/slaves given to a stronger ruler. He wanted a fine temple there so that sacred religious objects cherished by the Israelites would finally have a permanent home. Died before it was built, but they remembered him as their greatest king, as do Jews today

28Davids sonBuilt splendid stone temple in JerusalemIn Hebrew Bible, he is known for his proverbs.

Solomon

Temple became the symbol and center of Jewish religion.

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Wise sayingsHappy the man who finds wisdom, the man who gains understanding!-- Proverbs 3:13If you are wise, it is to your own advantage; and if you are arrogant, you alone shall bear it.-- Proverbs 9:12Hatred stirs up disputes, but love covers all offenses.-- Proverbs 10:12Proverbs

While the proverbs in the Hebrew Bible are among the best known, they are not the only proverbs. They exist in almost every time, culture and tradition. Probably the most famous American examples are found in Benjamin Franklins collection, Poor Richards Alamanack. Franklin used many proverbs from other cultures, placing them in an American context.31Between the devil and the deep seaTo choose between two equally bad alternatives in a serious dilemma.Where there's a will there's a wayWhen a person really wants to do something, he will find a way of doing it.A burnt child dreads fireA bad experience or a horrifying incident may scar one's attitude or thinking for a lifetime.First come, first servedThe first in line will be attended to first.A friend in need is a friend indeedA friend who helps when one is in trouble is a real friend."Better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to speak out and remove all doubt. -- Abraham LincolnProverbsOther types of proverbs. English?32"Well done is better than well said""A lie stands on one leg, the truth on two""God helps those who help themselves""A penny saved is a penny earned""Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise""There is no little enemy""It is hard for an empty sack to stand upright""When the well is dry, they know the worth of water""Drive the business, let not drive thee""Kill no more pigeons than you can eat""The sleeping fox catches no poultry""Think of the things, whence you came, where are you going, and to whom you must account""Energy and persistence conquer all things"

Benjamin Franklins proverbsExplain these.33Many Israelites hated his rule.Taxed people to pay for his great buildingsList positive and negative aspects of paying taxes. Made young men work in mines of neighboring countries to make more moneyDeath 10 of 12 tribes set up their own nation in the north

Solomon continued

10 tribes created a new kingdom in N called Israel --- capital was Samaria2 tribes founded a smaller kingdom called Judah --- capital was Jerusalem --- people were JewsWhich kingdom lost access to the Mediterranean? Which shares a border with Phoenicia?

Kingdoms of Israel and Judah

Kingdoms felt threatened by their powerful neighbors. Prophets brought hope emphasizing that people should please God by leading a moral life and helping others.

Which prophet taught that both the rich and the poor needed to obey Gods word? MicahCompare --- What do teachings of Isaiah, Micah, and Ezekiel have in common? All three concern peoples behavior.Being faithful meant more than going to a temple to worshipmeant working for a just society; prophet Amos said that justice should roll down like waters and righteousness as a mighty stream. Jewish goal of a just society also became an important part of Christianity and Islam.37Assyrians and Chaldeans were building empires in SE AsiaIsrael722 B.C. were conquered by the Assyrians scattering the 10 tribes across their empire.New culture developed called Samaritans. lost tribes of IsraelThe Fall of the Kingdoms

Samaritans developed because the Assyrians brought people from elsewhere in their empire to live in Samaria. They mixed with the surviving Israelites. They adopted many of the Israelite beliefs, worshiping the God of Israel, reading the Torah, and following Israelite religious laws.38Lost Tribes of IsraelIsrael was conquered by Assyrians in 722 BC and the scattered people were known as the Lost Tribes of Israel

JudahJudaism developed from the religious practices of the tribes of Judah.620 B.C. conquered by Egyptians keeping their king but paying tribute to EgyptChaldeans conquered Egypt.The Fall of the KingdomsSamaritans developed because the Assyrians brought people from elsewhere in their empire to live in Samaria. They mixed with the surviving Israelites. They adopted many of the Israelite beliefs, worshiping the God of Israel, reading the Torah, and following Israelite religious laws.40Chaldean king597 B.C. captured Jerusalem punishing the Jews severelyMade 10,000 Jews leave Jerusalem and move to Babylon, Chaldean capital.Appointed a new Jewish kingProphet Jeremiah warned the new Jewish king that planning a revolt would be dangerous. 586 B.C. destroyed temple; Babylonian captivityKing NebuchadnezzarReviewWhy did the Assyrians and the Chaldeans want to control the land belonging to the Israelites?Why was David anointed king while Saul was still in charge of the Israelites?Who were the prophets, and why were they important to the Israelites?What happened to the Israelites after the death of Solomon?Who were the Samaritans?Why do you think the Assyrians, and later the Chaldeans, moved Jews away from Israel and Judah after those areas were conquered?Wanted to control the trade routes that ran through the Israelite kingdomsSaul displeased God by disobeying some of Gods commands, so God chose another king.Messengers who claimed to be instructed by God and who taught the Israelites how to live properly. Fighting broke out among the Israelites, and they formed two separate kingdoms.Assyrian settlers around SamariaTo decrease the chance of revolt42King DavidKing SolomonKing DavidKing SolomonDrove the Philistines from Israel and created an empire

Built a temple in Jerusalem

Built Jerusalem

Known for his proverbsWrote many psalms

The Growth of JudaismJews continued their religion during their exile in Babylon.Babylonian exileTheir religion became known as Judaism.SabbathSynagogues

Exile and Return

Ruins of the Ancient Synagogue at Bar'amSabbath was their weekly day of worship and rest lasting from sundown on Friday to sundown on Saturday. This took place at synagogues or Jewish houses of worship. These meetings gave them hope. Different houses of worship names? 46

Belz Great Synagogue in Jerusalem (largest)

The Torah Ark of the Ari Ashkenazi Synagogue

The Karaite Synagogue in the Old City (Jerusalem)Why did the Jews Return to Judah?500s B.C. Persians defeated Chaldeans and Babylon538 B.C. Persian king Cyrus permitted Jews to return to Judah.Rebuilt Jerusalem and the templeReligious leadersScribesTorahHebrew Bible

King Cyrus appointed officials to rule the country and collect taxes. Jews were not allowed to have their own govt or king. They depended mainly on their religious leaders to run their society (not temple priests and scribes). Many scribes became religious scholars. Under the scribe Ezra, the Jews wrote the five books of the Torah on pieces of parchment. They sewed the pieces together to make long scrolls. The Torah and writings that were added later made up the Hebrew Bible.48Series of 34 books collected The Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings added laterBooks of poetry, literature, and proverbsGenesisWhat is in the Hebrew Bible?

According to Jewish law, the text of the Torah may not be decorated or illustrated. To show reverence to the Torah, however, various forms of ornamentation are used on cases and wrappings for the text.491st book of TorahNoah, ark, FloodRainbow BabelGenesis

God punished the world for its bad behavior. Noah and his family ark animals flood. Rainbow symbol of Gods promise to never again destroy the world with water. Why world has languages? Genesis explains the people of Babel tried to build a tower to heaven. God disapproved and made the people speak in different languages then scattered them across the earth. 50Gods plan for a peaceful futureBook of DanielJews believed that evil and suffering would eventually be replaced by goodness. Christians and Muslims share this idea of good triumphing over evil. 334 B.C. Alexander the Great 331 B.C. he defeated the Persians and introduced the Greek language and ways to Judah.

Looking toward the future

Daniel lived in Babylon, trusted adviser to king, refused to worship Babylonian gods, Chaldeans threw him in the lions den (Story - meant to remind Jews that God would rescue them) 51Jews Babylon, Egypt, lands bordering Mediterranean SeaThis is known as Diaspora --- scattering of Jews outside of Israel and JudahGreek word that means scattered. Jews learned Greek language and ways but remained loyal to Judaism.Diaspora

A group of Jews copied the Hebrew Bible into Greek which helped people who were not Jews to read and understand it. As a result, Jewish ideas spread throughout the Mediterranean world.52168 B.C. Greek ruler Antiochus controlled Judah.Jews made to worship Greek gods and goddess.Judas Maccabeus, a priest, along with followers rebelled.The MaccabeesHanukkahMaccabeesfled to the hills and formed an army known as the Maccabees. They drove the Greeks out of Judah, destroyed all traces of Greek gods and goddesses in their temple and rededicated it to the worship of GodHanukkah celebrates this cleansing of the templePriests form Judas family became the new rulers of Judah and were able to take over the land that had been part of the kingdom of Israel53

Shaped by religionLaws affected daily life

Jewish CultureLaws influenced their education, the food they ate, and the clothes they wore. Required them to provide for the poor, visit the sick, do good deeds, give to charity, and apply just laws to rich and poor alike. Laws emphasized self-control and reminded them of their religion. 55Great importanceSons valued especially carried on family name Became head of household upon fathers deathEducation1st teachers were their mothersElders took over religious education of boys (Torah)Mothers educated daughters at home

Family lifeWhen old enough, fathers taught sons how to earn an income and to worship God. Reading the Torah was central to Jewish life, religious teachers became important community leaders. Girls learned to be good wives, mothers, and housekeepers including learning Jewish laws about food and clothing. Learned about the courageous women of ancient Israel such as Ruth. She provided an example of courage and devotion to family for Jewish girls to follow.56Their relationship shows importance of family love and devotion.Book of Ruth in Hebrew BibleNaomi wants to return home after death of husband and sons.Ruth to Naomi Wherever you go, I will go; wherever you lodge; I will lodge; your people shall be my people, and your God my God.Boaz marries Ruth and they have Obed.Obed is the grandfather of David.

Ruth and Naomi

Book of Ruth tells of Ruths life and her devotion to her mother-in-law, Naomi. They moved to Moad because of lack of food. Here one son married Ruth. Naomis husband and sons died. Naomi wanted to return to Bethlehem. Ruth refused to let Naomi go alone. Ruth, a convert to the Israelite religion.57Under Jewish law, Jews could only eat certain animals.Beef and lamb, not porkscaly fish like salmon not shellfish or smooth skin fish like eelLaws kashrut that which is properKosher Ancient times meals were made up of fish, fruit, veggies, and barley bread. Beverages were mainly milk, water, wine, and beer.Jewish DietToday, kosher is food prepared according to Jewish dietary laws. Animals used for kosher meat must be killed in a certain way. Meat must be inspected, salted, and soaked. To be kosher, Jews must not cook or eat milk products with meat.58

Jewish ClothingNo mixing of fabricsFlax or wool but not combinedMen tunics made of linen next to their skin (some layered)Cold weather wool or sheepskin cloaksHeads caps or turbanssandalsWomenDraped in long, simple dressesCovered heads with shawlsWealthy wore leather shoes, makeup, and jewelryUnder Roman rule, the Jews were divided and rebellious. In response, the Romans destroyed the temple and exiled the Jews.The Jews and the RomansConquered in 63 B.C. renamed it Judaea61Most famous kingKnown for additions made to Jewish temple in JerusalemDivision after the Herods death

King Herod Pharisees and SadduceesTaught the Torah and how to apply its laws to daily lifeTaught in synagogues and were supported by the common peopleSupport of the oral traditionsBelieved these were very important in helping people obey the commandmentsAccepted the TorahMore concerned about how it applied to priests in TemplesDisagreed with Pharisees teachingsEmphasized written law and commandments

P- helped to make Judaism a religion of home and family, oral traditions set them apart. Oral traditions were teachings of Jewish leaders and interpretations of Jewish writings that had been passed down over time by word of mouthS many were priests and scribes, didnt hold the oral traditions, 63A 3rd groupPriests who broke away from the Temple in JerusalemDesertPraying and waiting for God to deliver the Jews from the RomansStrictly followed written law

EssenesAncient scrolls found in A.D. 1947 in caves near the Dead SeaHelped historians know more about Judaism during Roman timesDead Scrolls

Waiting for a messiahZealotsA.D. 66 Zealot revolt JewsA.D. 70 Romans retook Jerusalem killing thousands of Jews.Revolted again in A.D. 132Ended in 3yrs Romans forbade Jews to live in or visit JerusalemPalestine

Jewish RevoltsMessiah deliverer sent by God66Rabbis teachers of the TorahYohanan ben Zaccai famous rabbiFounded a school in northern Palestine center of Torah studiesCommentaries (Talmud Hebrew word for learning or study)A.D. 1947 Palestine dividedIsrael A.D. 1948Jewish Teachers Rabbis wanted to save and pass on teachings about the Torah. Combined teachings into books called commentaries (Talmud most important) deals with almost every aspect of daily life, including agricultural activities, feasts, prayer, and marriages. 67

So that lives could be saved and certain important business carried out on the Sabbath, etc.ReviewHow did Alexander the Great affect the Israelites?What was Diaspora?What was education like within a Jewish family?Who was Yohannan ben Zaccai, and why was he important?Do you think that Jewish beliefs and values would have spread so widely if the lands of Israel and Judah had not been conquered by other peoples? Explain.He conquered Judah but allowed the Jews to remain in their homeland. He introduced Greek ideas and the Greek language to them.Scattered Jews living outside of their homeland in JudahMothers taught young children. Fathers taught older boys religion and the fathers trade. Boys also learned the Torah from religious teachers. Mothers taught girls the basic skills of being good wives, mothers, and housekeepers.The Jews met and worshiped on the Sabbath.A rabbi who helped Judaism survive loss of temple by creating a school to study the Torah

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Jewish NumbersBasic Beliefs1. God exists. 2. God is one and unique. 3. God is eternal. 4. Prayer is to be directed to God alone. 5. The words of the prophets are true. 6. Moses was the greatest prophet, and his prophecies are true. 7. The Torah was given to Moses. 8. There will be no other Torah. 9. God knows the thoughts and deeds of men. 10. God will reward the good and punish the wicked. 11. The Messiah will come. 12. The dead will be resurrected. Impact of Ancient IsraelCovenant = formal agreement between Hebrews and God (Yahweh); Hebrews worshipped God and only God, and in return, they would be Gods Chosen People and given Canaan as the Promised LandSpiritual ideas profoundly influenced Western culture, morality, ethics and conductThree of the worlds most dominant religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam all derive their roots from the spiritual beliefs of the Ancient Israelites