the ancient israelites and the hebrew bible

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The Ancient Israelites and the Hebrew Bible. Revision of Weeks 11 - 14. Who are the Jews?. AKA Hebrews, AKA Israelites (One of the) first monotheistic religions = worship of one God. Their history, beliefs and laws are recorded in the Tanakh and the Talmud. . 1. What is the Hebrew Bible?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Ancient Israelites and the Hebrew BibleRevision of Weeks 11 - 14Who are the Jews?AKA Hebrews, AKA Israelites

(One of the) first monotheistic religions = worship of one God.

Their history, beliefs and laws are recorded in the Tanakh and the Talmud.

Judaism is an ethnicity as well as a religion; Hence, there are secular Jews people who are ethnically Jewish but who do not subscribe to Jewish religious beliefs.

A very brief history of the Jews: Babylonian exile 587 539 BCE; Destruction of the Second Temple 70 CE by Titus, son of the Roman emperor, Vespasian; Diaspora; Anti-semitism: religious in origin/ then racial, culminating in the holocaust; 1948: Establishment of the modern state of Israel

As we have seen, this question is complicated. There is debate and uncertainty regarding the origins of these people.

21. What is the Hebrew Bible?AKA TanakhAKA The Old Testament

The Holy Book of JudaismThe Tanakh is the chief holy book of Judaism

Judaisms other holy book is called the Talmud.

The Talmud is largely composed of an oral tradition of interpretation of the the Tanakh that was eventually written down.The Hebrew Bible is also part of the Christian BibleThe Hebrew Bible is the first part of the Christian Bible what is called the Old Testament.

Jesus was a Jew, as were the first Christians.

At first Christianity was a new development within Judaism, only after time did it become a separate religion.

5Stories of the Hebrew Bible also retold in Islams holy book the Quran

The Structure of the BibleThe Hebrew Bible aka the Old Testament (Christian & Jewish):The Law The five books of Moses The Prophets history of the united monarchy and the kingdoms of Judah and Israel, including Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings. The Writings

New Testament (Christian):Gospels - the life and death of JesusActs of the Apostles - the work and teaching of the early founders of the ChurchEpistles - letters from Christian leaders, particularly Paul, to Christian communitiesBook of Revelation

TaNaK (Tanakh)aka the Hebrew Bible, aka Old TestamentAn acronym for the three parts of the text: Torah (law); Nebiim (prophets); Kethubim (writings)A total of 24 books (39 by the Christian system of counting)

Torah (also called Books of Moses or Pentateuch)GenesisExodusLeviticusNumbersDeuteronomy

The Torah as a CollectionFirst part of the canon established

It was pulled together after the fall of Jerusalem in 587/86 BCE.

Regarded as fixed by the 4th century BCE

Most authoritative texts in JudaismThe origins of the Torah according to the Torah

According to biblical tradition, the Torah was revealed to Moses at Sinai.Aron Tendler, Associate Rabbi, Yeshiva University: We believe the Torah was written by the hand of Moses but dictated to him by God himself in a totally divine manner, no different than you would dictate a letter to a secretary.Rabbi David Wolpe, University of Judaism:The Torah itself never exactly claims that Moses wrote all of it. Theres a section that says Moses wrote down these words but it never says and all the other words in this book. The belief originated in pre-Rabbinic and Rabbinic times, the first couple of centuries BCE, for lots of reasons not the least of which was; you cant establish the authority of the book any better than saying G-d wrote it.

11Prophets (Nebiim or Neviim)Former ProphetsJoshuaJudgesSamuelKings

Latter ProphetsMajor ProphetsIsaiahJeremiahEzekielMinor Prophets(Book of the 12)Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi

The Prophets as a Collection

Prophecy does not mean telling the future; it is about the action of God in history

This collection is far more diverse. It was closed by the 2nd century BCE. We know that because Daniel (c. 164 BCE) was not included.

12Writings (Kethubim or Kethuvim)PsalmsProverbsJobSong of SongsRuthLamentations

EcclesiastesEstherDanielEzra-NehemiahChronicles

The Writings as a Collection

Different formulations existed over time (compare Mt 7:12 to Lk 24:44)

Following the destruction of the second temple in Jerusalem (70 CE), the pressure rose to close the canon

Some hold the final form was declared at Jamnia at 90 CE

13The TanakhThe Tanakh is written primarily in Hebrew

We do not have any original manuscripts; we only have copies of copies

Codex Leningradensis is the oldest complete Hebrew manuscript we have. It dates to 1008 CE

Genesis Chapters 1 - 3

The Documentary HypothesisThe Documentary Hypothesis is the theory that the first five books of the Hebrew Bible (aka The Torah aka The Five Books of Moses aka the Pentateuch) derive from four distinct sources. These four sources sometimes overlap and are sometimes inconsistent.

EG: Modern scholars, observing what seemed to be inconsistencies in the text, questioned whether chapters 2 and 3 (the Adam and Eve story) had even been written by the same hand that wrote chapter 1 (creation of the world in six days).

These repetitions of the same narrative element (although sometimes with inconsistencies) are called doublets.

16When did God create woman?Chapter 1: 27 So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them;male and female he created them.

Chapter 2: God creates Adam. At first he is alone. Almost as if the creation recounted in chapter 1 had never happened. Then creates all the animals and has Adam name them and only then creates Eve.

17When did God create woman?Chapter 1: 27 So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them;male and female he created them.

Chapter 2: God creates Adam. At first he is alone. Almost as if the creation recounted in chapter 1 had never happened. Then creates all the animals and has Adam name them and only then creates Eve.18When did God create birds?[On the 5th day, prior to creation of man and woman on the 6th day] 20And God said, Let the water teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the vault of the sky. 21So God created the great creatures of the sea and every living thing with which the water teems and that moves about in it, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. [Man and woman created on the 6th day].

Gen 2:19 Animals and birds created after Adam, in conflict with chapter 1.

19When did God create birds?[On the 5th day, prior to creation of man and woman on the 6th day] 20And God said, Let the water teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the vault of the sky. 21So God created the great creatures of the sea and every living thing with which the water teems and that moves about in it, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. [Man and woman created on the 6th day].

Gen 2:19 Animals and birds created after Adam, in conflict with chapter 1. When did God create plants?Gen 2:4-7 seems to announce a wholly new beginning. Seems to say humanity was created before plant life but Chapter 1 has vegetation created on the third day (along with the earth) and humanity created on the sixth.

21When did God create plants?Gen 2:4-7 seems to announce a wholly new beginning. Seems to say humanity was created before plant life but Chapter 1 has vegetation created on the third day (along with the earth) and humanity created on the sixth.What is God like?Chapter 1: God is a cosmic sovereign.

Chapters 2 and 3: God is a divine craftsman. He Himself shapes Adam out of the mud and breathes air into his nostrils. God walks about the Garden (Gen 3:8). When Adam and Eve hide from him, he calls out where are you? Apparently, he does not know. At the end, God makes clothes for the pair another hands-on act.

23What is God like?Chapter 1: God is a cosmic sovereign.

Chapters 2 and 3: God is a divine craftsman. He Himself shapes Adam out of the mud and breathes air into his nostrils. God walks about the Garden (Gen 3:8). When Adam and Eve hide from him, he calls out where are you? Apparently, he does not know. At the end, God makes clothes for the pair another hands-on act. God vs Lord GodGod is referred to quite consistently in chapter 1 by the word God (elohim). Starting at Gen 2:4, exactly where the story of Adam and Eve begins, he suddenly becomes the Lord God. The word God is now preceded by YHWH (the proper name of the Hebrew god). The Lord God is used consistently until the end of chapter 3. The writer who referred to him as God saw him as a cosmic deity.The writer who used the name the Lord God conceived of him in more personal terms, a sort of divine humanoid who walked around and shaped things and made clothes. The Documentary Hypothesis

The Yawehist (J) is the source of the Adam and Eve storyStory of Adam and Eve a product of the author known as J: uses YHWH; anthropomorphic conception of God; focused on humanity; the effect of past events on humanitys present condition

People have to work for food, women have to suffer the pain of childbirth because of the first humans disobedience.

Human beings are called man (adam in Hebrew) because thats what the first created human was called. This in turn was because he was made out of the ground (adamah)

27The Yawehist (J) is the source of the Adam and Eve storyStory of Adam and Eve a product of the author known as J: uses YHWH; anthropomorphic conception of God; focused on humanity; the effect of past events on humanitys present condition People have to work for food, women have to suffer the pain of childbirth because of the first humans disobedience. Human beings are called man (adam in Hebrew) because thats what the first created human was called. This in turn was because he was made out of the ground (adamah) Adam and Eve as allegoryInteresting theory about the meaning of Adam and Eve seems to reflect the moment humanity discovered the secret of agriculture.

Figuring out that seeds can be collected and then deliberately planted in fields was a great step forward for humanity.

But agriculture brought with it certain pains working long hours under the sun, earning ones bread by the sweat of your face (Gen 3:19)

29Adam and Eve as allegoryInteresting theory about the meaning of Adam and Eve seems to reflect the moment humanity discovered the secret of agriculture.

Figuring out that seeds can be collected and then deliberately planted in fields was a great step forward for humanity.

But agriculture brought with it certain pains working long hours under the sun, earning ones bread by the sweat of your face (Gen 3:19)Adam and Eve as allegoryAt a similar stage of historical development, people began to wear more clothes.At a similar time, human beings discovered that childbirth is the result of an act of planting nine months earlier. Before this discovery, a father may not understand he has any specific relationship to this or that child. Afterwards, the man will cling to his wife and they shall be one flesh (Gen 2: 24). Noah and the FloodWhat doublets occur in Genesis, Chapters 6 9?32Noah and the Flood Q) What similarities exist between the Mesopotamian and biblical flood stories?Quote from The Epic of GilgameshSimilarity with the Biblical flood storyThe hearts of the Great Gods moved them to inflict the Flood.Gods decide to send a flood.Tear down the house and build a boat!Command to build a boat.... keep alive living beings! Make all living beings go up into the boat.Instruction to take other living beings onto the boat/ark.The boat which you are to build,its dimensions must measure equal to each other:its length must correspond to its width.The dimensions of the boat are specified.Roof it over like the Apsu.Roofed over like the arkthree times 3,600 (units of) pitch ...into itCommon building materialI had all my kith and kin go up into the boat,Family enters the arkI went into the boat and sealed the entry.Similar to Noahs entry onto the arksubmerging the mountain in waterMountains submerged with waterOn Mt. Nimush the boat lodged firmBoat comes to rest on a mountainI sent forth a dove and released it.The dove went off, but came back to me...Similar to Noah sending out birds to see if the water has recededThen I sent out everything in all directions and sacrificed (a sheep).Sacrifice offered to the GodsThe gods smelled the savorGods smell the sacrifice34

Abraham (Genesis)

1813 BCE: Abraham born1738 BCE: Abraham settles in Canaan1677 BCE: Isaac prepared as sacrifice1653 BCE: Jacob born

Watson- No independent corroboration for any of the early figures (although Egyptian and Babylonian kings at the time of, say, Moses are firmly established, we know of their actions, remains have been found)- No archaeological evidence that Abraham, Noah, Moses or Joshua ever existed- Place names, Philistines, domesticated camels all belong to 1200 BC and after- Inconsistency between two accounts of creation in Genesis

Abraham (Genesis)

1813 BCE: Abraham born1738 BCE: Abraham settles in Canaan1677 BCE: Isaac prepared as sacrifice1653 BCE: Jacob born

Kugel

- 19th Century scholarship: believed that someone (that is, J or E) who lived long after Abraham, indeed, long after the people of Israel had settled Canaan, made up these stories in order to justify that settlement- 2Oth Century first half: discovery of Ur (which had disappeared from history in the 17th century BCE); Nuzi tablets (near Haran) reveal legal practices, customs that fit with Abraham narrative; Mari tablets mention names that are those of Abrahams family. His life and times appear to fit uniquely well with the first half of the 2nd millennium BCE.- 20th Century second half: Philistines interacting with Abraham seems anachronistic; absence of any reference to Abraham of Israels 8th and 7th century prophets; one scholar argues Abrahams story created to reflect the Jews return after exile in Babylon; nowhere in the bible does it say that Abraham did not worship other Gods. - Sacrifice a ritual to mark an agreement like a signature is today

Joseph (Genesis)

1562 BCE: Joseph born1546 BCE: Joseph sold into slavery1532 BCE: Joseph becomes Egypt's viceroy1523 BCE: Jacob and family move to Egypt

Kugel

- Ancient Egyptian records reveal that Semitic peoples from the area of Canaan did indeed frequently go down to Egypt in time of famine...- Western Semites known as the Hyksos, actually took over control of Egypt for a century or so (approximately 1670 1570 BCE)

Moses (Exodus)1429 BCE: Egyptian enslavement begins1393 BCE: Moses born1313 BCE: Exodus from Egypt Revelation at Mt Sinai1312 BCE: Moses brings down second set of tablets

Watson - No independent corroboration for any of the early figures (although Egyptian and Babylonian kings at the time of, say, Moses are firmly established)- One account has the descendants of Abraham going to Egypt and then being led by Moses, via the Wilderness, into Canaan. In the other account, the land is settled from the east, with no mention of Egypt. (Watson, p. 156)- It is the J source that refers to the special relationship between God and the Jews, but there is no mention of a covenant concerning the land. This is why the covenant is thought to be a later invention of the 6th century when, during exile, the Jews became aware of Zoroastrian beliefs in Babylon.

Kugel- Expulsion of the Hyksos may be the basis for the Exodus story

Joshua 1-6 live-tweetedChapterTweet1.Moses has died. Joshua is our new leader. God has commanded Joshua to learn all laws and to cross the Jordan river. We are now loyal to Joshua God told J 2 take Canaan. J spread the word of his orders and all said they wld be loyal 2 him.2. Spies go into Jericho, Canaan. Stayed with R. King says to R, spies in yo house, give em up. She hides em, and tells the spies, we scared. Spies make a deal so Rs family wont die. The spies report to Josh.Dont kill those in the house with the red cord, they helped our spies [email protected] shows us @god is with us. The river was parted so we can cross #religion #god #jordan #IsraelitesJ tells us that Gods gonna get rid of other ppl& do a miracle. The priests go in the water with the c-box. Water stops We cross #MLIA #YOLO 4.Joshua has commanded one from each tribe to set up stones to commemorate Gods draining of the Jordan river. #God4lyfWe, the Israelites, are going to Jerricho. Joshua removed 12 stones from the river Jordan, God let us ford the River. God is great.5.Josh circumcised Israelites, celebrated Passover & worshipped the lords Man with a sword on holy ground6.Wtf, bunch of Israelites marching round the city dead silent. Why are they shouting? Omfg the wall just collapsed, theyre killing everyone. Dat bish Rahab is being led away.

39Is the Bibles story of the conquest of Canaan accurate?Jericho and other archaeological evidence

Joshua and the conquest of Canaan1272 BCE: Death of Moses Yehoshua (Joshua) leads Jews into IsraelWatson - Menetaph stele dated to 1204 BC records Egyptian conquest of Ashkelon and Gezer and describes the destruction of the people of Israel.

- No independent corroboration for any of the early figures (although Egyptian and Babylonian kings at the time of, say, Moses are firmly established)

- No archaeological evidence to support the story of a 13th century conquest followed by a united monarchy

- no evidence of a short military campaign of conquest

- no evidence of any cities in the area being sacked or burned

- Arud, Ai and Gibeon said to have been conquered by Joshua are now known not to have existed then

- Evidence of continuity of lifestyle: distinctive pottery, four-room house evolved over 150 years

- Possibly, the Jews were a local tribe amongst othersThere were no signs of destruction at Jericho- no evidence of burning, pillaging or devastation

Of the sites said to be conquered by the Israelites, only 2 show signs of destruction- Lachish and Hazor

By 1200 BC Jericho was a poorly defended settlement. There is no archaeological evidence to show that it was a walled city as it is described in the Bible.

The Bible suggests a Canaan-wide conquest, but the areas mentioned only form a very small part of Canaan

Inconsistences in the Bible

41Merneptah Stele (aka the Menetaph Stele, aka Israel Stele)

Merneptah SteleDated to 1209/1208 BCE

Inscription by the Ancient Egyptian king Merneptah (reign:1213 to 1203 BC)

Found at ThebesMerneptah SteleCanaan is captive with all woe. Ashkelon is conquered, Gezer seized, Yanoam made nonexistent; Israel is wasted, bare of seed.

Merneptah SteleThe determinative accompanying Gezer, Ashkelon and Yanoam indicate they are city-states. The determinative accompanying Israel indicates it is a foreign people, perhaps a nomadic tribe. Merneptah SteleScholarly debate about translation for I.si.ri.ar. Some scholars suggest it doesnt refer to Israel but Jezreel.

Only known Egyptian reference to the Israelites

Earliest known reference to the IsraelitesAlts theory of settlement Alt observed that there are few pure nomads in region Bedouin engaged in farming Alternative modelLack of tangible evidence Shechem shows signs of conflict There are better alternative theories

Israelites were semi-nomadic peoples who settled in Canaan sometimes peacefully, sometimes through conquest

47El Amarna Letters48Canaanite Exurbanite Model

It is now commonly believed that the Israelite people originated within Canaan, rather than as outsiders fighting in.Archaeologists have discovered increase of settlements in the highlands of ancient Canaan, and the inhabitants of these settlements were the supposed Israelite people.One theory suggests that the influx of population to the highlands was caused by social change, and that the new settlers were refugees from the poor districts of Canaanite cities.However, Kugel presents evidence which suggest these new settlers were in fact semi-nomadic people from within Canaan. For example, public buildings, masonry etc. bore littles resemblance to that of the Canaanite cities.

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