the 5 themes to ask about a culture sumer/mesopotamia ancient egypt israelites by rachel boyd
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The 5 Themes To Ask About A Culture
By Rachel Boyd
Sumer / MesopotamiaLocation: Ur= 31°N 48°ERelative Location-
•In Between the Tigris and Euphrates river
•Present day Iraq
Region/Human Environment InteractionPhysical Characteristics Euphrates and Tigris River,
Plains, Plateaus, Persian Gulf, Marshes, Trees
Natural Resources Euphrates, Tigris, Clay, Bronze, Copper, Stone, Tin
Climate/Growing Season/Land use-They had heavy spring floods and very hot summers-The land was used for FarmingChange to the Environment-To change, they built irrigation systems, canals, dams,
and gates to help water crops and control flooding
Economics / Movement
Goods/Trade• Goods were made by hand and simple tools• Some goods that were produced were jewelry,
pottery, weapons/tools, instruments, fabric, and even board games
• Goods were traded in the local Market Place for other items needed
• The Mesopotamians did not have money, but they traded and kept records of the trades
• To transport goods they used the first wheel and sailboats
They were governed by a king. The first kings were strong Military leaders for the people needed more protection and they chose leaders who have accomplished many things, and were strong. The kings were then selected by the next male heir, except when another kingdom conquered their land. Some of their leaders include Hammurabi, Sargon, and Gilgamesh.
Laws The laws they obeyed were Hammurabi’s laws or they would be punished
New Knowledge that developed:Wheel, a better calendar, advanced writing system, and an irrigation system, the plow.
What can we learn about them from their culture, art, writing, ect…They had a stable economyThey wasted no time on projectsSome of Today’s laws are based on their laws
Belief about gods:
• They worship over 3000 gods
• Their belief is Polytheism- belief in many gods
• They believed that their gods controlled everything
• They believe that the meaning of life is to please the gods and worship them
• Their beliefs affect their lives for they spent a big portion of their day worshiping them and their gods affect everything they do.Also they used their arts skills and sculpting skills not to show how good you are, but in honor of the gods
They had many families in their countryThey had slaves who were often prisoners of warThe Mesopotamians had 3 social classes that included:
King, Government, Priests, & Wealthy PeopleFarmers, Fishermen, & Artisans(Women Weavers)
Slaves Their daily live consists of pleasing the gods, farmers tending crops and livestock, the women taking care of the family and the chores(unless wealthy), and some people traded at the Market
Location: Cairo- 30°E 30°NRelative Location-
Near the Mediterranean and Red SeaAbove SudanIn Africa
Region/Human Environmental Interaction
Physical CharacteristicsBlack silt, Nile River, desert land, cataracts, papyrus
plants, marshlands, farm land, deltaNatural Resources Gold, copper, granite, limestone, basalt, quartzite,
cotton, linen, mud, Nile River, PapyrusClimate/SeasonsDry, arid and hot, very little rainThe seasons are: Flood season, Planting season, Harvest seasonAdapting to the environmentThe Egyptians lived near the Nile and used it as a
transportation systemThey wore heavy clothing to protect them from the sun
Goods were produced by hand and simple tools such as chisels.Some goods that were produced were jewelry, food, baskets, cloth, weapons, ect…Goods were transported by boat along the Nile, or by wheel.Goods were traded for other items that were of equal worth for they did not have money.
Political Science/ MovementThe people obeyed the Pharaoh and the gods
and goddesses The Pharaoh had many advisors, but ended up making the final decisionThe Pharaoh made up many laws for the Egyptians to follow, or they would be punishedThe Pharaohs were chosen for they were usually the eldest son of the current reigning Pharaoh
Knowledge/Education/The ArtsSome new knowledge that they developed were:
-First medical records-48 diseases/symptoms & cures
-Advanced writing system- hieroglyphics-One of the most architecturally advanced civilizations-Tomb paintings, temples, pyramids,
etc…We can learn that they are very religious, and all their art and sculptures and statues are made for their Pharaoh and gods and not for fame. The Egyptians were very eager into making it into the Underworld
- shown in tomb paintings
Religion and PhilosophyThey believe that they have many gods and goddesses (including their Pharaoh) that each have a special job They believe that the meaning of life is to please and worship the gods and to live a good life so they may make it into the afterlife.Their religion affects their lives for they must be careful and do only the things that are right so they may enter the afterlife.
Ex: worshiping gods, doing good deeds, etc…
SociologyThere are many families in Egypt
The Egyptians did have slaves that mainly worked for their Pharaoh or were used in battle
The Egyptians had 8 classes:Pharaoh- who was thought of as a godPriests- they were only ones allowed in temples with the PharaohRoyal family- wives, children, relatives…Officials- responsible for the taxes, royal store houses, and cropsArtisans- carpenters, painters, jewelers, stone masons, and brick
makersFarmers- most Egyptians were farmers, grew crop to supply food Slaves- served the pharaoh, fought as soldiers, and worked as
Daily Lives- hunting, doing chores, worshiping their gods, obeying the pharaoh, and trading for items needed.
Jerusalem- 32˚ N and 35˚E
Relative Location- -Near the Mediterranean Sea-beside Egypt-below Syria
Region/Human Environmental InteractionPhysical CharacteristicsJordan River, Hills, Plains, DesertNatural ResourcesGrain, wheat, barley, fishClimate/Growing SeasonHot with little rainGrowing season was most of the year
They used their natural resources for food and trade
Goods were either grown or manmade with simple toolsSome goods were pottery, cloth, weapons, jewelry, cropsThe goods were exchanged at Trading Routes and MarketsInstead of money they traded items they had for other items they neededThey were transported by boat or animal
Political Science/GovernmentThey were governed by kings
The Kings were chosen some by skill and some by royal bloodSome great Kings that ruled the Israelites were David, Saul, and Solomon The laws that the Israelites followed were the 10 CommandmentsBesides the kings, the Israelites followed God’s rules too
Some new knowledge they made were :Monotheistic religion (Judaism) The TorahSacred WritingsTemples
That shows that they were very religious and wanted to please and love God
Religion and PhilosophyThe Israelites believed in one GodThey believe the meaning of life is to please and worship GodThey believe that God is All-Knowing and present everywhereThe Israelites made a promise to God that if they follow His laws and love Him, He would love and protect themTheir belief affects their lives for they are careful about what they do or say so they do not upset God
SociologyThe Israelites live in groups such as the FamilyThey did have slaves, but not manyThe Israelites thought of each other as equalsTheir daily lives consist of:-Work (whatever their jobs are)-Worship God-Mothers do chores and watch the children-They trade at a Marketplace when they need to
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Standing male worshipper. 31 May 2009 <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_40.156.jpg>.