judaism. early history of the israelites 2000 b.c.–abraham migrates from mesopotamia to canaan,...

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  • Judaism

  • Early History of the Israelites2000 B.C.Abraham migrates from Mesopotamia to Canaan, where he founds the Israelite nation.Famine forces Israelites to migrate to Egypt, where they are enslaved.Moses leads the Israelites out of Egypt. Israelites enter Canaan, the promised land. 1000 B.C.David unites Israelites into kingdom of Israel. Solomon builds capital at Jerusalem, but his rule inspires revolts.922 B.C.Kingdom weakens after splitting into Israel and Judah.722 B.C.Assyrians conquer Israel586 B.C.Babylonians capture Judah Babylonian Captivity.Persians conquer Babylon and free the Jews from captivity.

  • Abrahams GeneaologyABRAHAMSARAHHAGARIsaacEsauJacob12 Tribes of IsraelIshmael12 Arabian Tribes

  • Abrahams Journey from UrCanaan The Promised Land

  • Abrahams Journeys

  • Miarat HaMachpelahMiarat HaMachpelah (Cave of Machpelah) is located in Chevron AKA Kiryat ArbaChevron became known as Kiryat Arba because of the four pairs of husbands and wives buried there: 1. Adam and Eve2. Avraham and Sarah3. Yitzchak and Rivkah4. Yakov and Leah

  • Land of Goshen, EgyptThis is where the Jews lived during their time as slaves in Egypt

  • MosesPrince of EgyptShepherd of His People

  • Moses and the Burning BushG-d tells Moses to return to Egypt to save the Jewish people.

  • Yahwehs Covenant With His PeopleThe Torah The first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible.AKA the Chumash The most sacred text in the Jewish religious tradition.

  • Ten CommandmentsYou shall have no other gods but me. You shall not make for yourself any idol, nor bow down to it or worship it. You shall not say G-ds name in vain. You shall remember and keep the Sabbath day holy. Respect your father and mother. You must not kill. You must not commit adultery. You must not steal. You must not give false evidence against your neighbour. You must not be envious of your neighbor's goods - of his house, wife, or anything that belongs to him.

  • The Ten Commandments were written on set of stone tablets:The first set was engraved by G-d while Moses was in heaven for 40 days. Moses smashed them after seeing the Israelites worshipping a golden calf they made.The second set Moses engraved.Both sets were placed in the Mishkan, they carried throughout the desert.Moses smashing the 2 Tablets containing the Ten CommandmentsThe Mishkan was a portable temple.

  • CastesKohanim priestly caste, a subset of the Tribe of Levi, descendants of Aharon, Moses brother, chosen by HaShem The High Priest (Kohen Hagadol) is the only person who is permitted to enter the Holy of Holies (Kodeh Hakadashim) and only once a year, on Yom Kippur.Leviim - The remainder of the Tribe of Levi is assigned roles in connection with the Mishkan (the portable Temple that the Jewish People transported from place to place in the Wilderness and also for the first several hundred years of their residence in the Land of Israel). Each group within the Tribe would, for example, be assigned to carry a different part of the paraphernalia of the Mishkan (the curtains, the coverings, the Menorah, the Table, the Holy Ark...)

  • Ancient Canaan

  • Moses did not take the Israelites into Israel, Joshua, his student did. Moses did not enter Israel because, if he did, G-d would not be able to punish the land instead of the Jewish people when they sinned.The Israelites traveled for 40 yrs before they got into Israel.

  • King Davids Empire

  • SolomonsKingdom

  • King Solomons Temple Floor PlanThe First Temple

  • Inside the Temple TabernacleThe Arc of the Covenant

  • The Temple Mount, Jerusalem TodaySolomons Temple Wall: The Wailing Wall

  • Kingdoms ofJudah&Israel

  • Israelites in CaptivityOne of the Diasporas

  • Crises of JudaismEgyptian Captivity (1200-1000 B.C.E.)The israelites worked as slaves under Egyptian rule until Moses brought the wrath of G-d with the Ten plaguesExodus under MosesThe Babylonian Exile (586 B.C.E.)Confederacy under King David with Jerusalem as the capital Solomon his son and the first temple to Yahweh The split into N./S. Kingdoms--Judah and IsraelDestruction of the Holy Temple by the Babylonians and Israeli exileThe Diaspora (Dispersal throughout Roman Empire) Return to Jerusalem in 515 b.c.e. Seleucid and Roman persecutions Romans Destruction of the Temple in 70 c.e. Rise of Rabbinical Judaism Tanak (Torah, Prophets and Writings) People of the Book Synagogue The HolocaustDuring WWII, Hitler authorized the extermination of over 6 million Jews.

  • The Israelites were monotheistic, believing in one true God. At the time, most other people worshiped many gods.

    The Israelites believed God to be all-knowing, all-powerful, and present everywhere.

    The Israelites believed that they were Gods chosen people.

    They believed that God would lead them to the promised land.

  • Teachings on Law and MoralityThe laws of the Torah address all aspects of life, from cleanliness and food preparation to criminal matters.

    Jews believe that God gave them a set of laws called the Ten Commandments.

    Jewish prophets, or spiritual leaders, preached a code of ethics, or moral standards of behavior.

    Examples: The rich and powerful must protect the poor and weak.All people are equal under God.

    Unlike many ancient people, the Jews believed their leaders were fully human and bound by Gods law.

  • As well as the Torah, the Jewish people study the Books of the prophetsAll the books the Jews study are known as the TaNaCH o aa r vt a iy h ivmim

  • MitzvotA mitzvah (mitzvot in plural form) is a good deed.The Jewish people are supposed to follow 613 mitzvot while non-Jews only have 7 that they are expected to follow (the 7 mitzvot bnai Noah). The 7 mitzvot bnai Noah are an abridged version of the 10 Commandments

  • ConversionJews do NOT try to convert people of other religions. (There are no Jewish missionaries.)Those who want to convert, are asked three times before they convert if they are sure of their decision.

  • Aleph-bet(the Hebrew Alphabet)The Hebrew Alphabet can be written in print or script.In Rashi (a commentary on the Torah), the aleph-bet looks different than the regular print or script.The Hebrew alphabet can also represent numbers.

  • Aleph-bet (in print)

  • ssAleph-bet in scriptAleph-bet in Rashi

  • Numerical Equivalents of the Aleph-bet

  • VowelsThere are no vowels in the Torah or in aleph-bet itself.

    Cholam Shva Segol Tsere Patach Kamatz Chataf Segol Chataf Patach Chataf Kamatz Shuruk Kubbutz Chirik

  • Bar/Bat MitzvahAt the age of 13 boys receive their bar mitzvah.They read from the Torah.

    At the age of 12, girls receive their bat mitzvah.Depending on the level of orthodoxy, different traditions are followed.Orthodox a party and speechConservative/Reform girls read from the Torah, as well as, have a party and say a speech

  • KippotA kippah (plural - kippot)( Hebrew: ) yarmulka, is a thin, slightly-rounded skullcap traditionally worn by observant Jewish men. Some women in the egalitarian Conservative and Reform movements also wear it during services.

  • ModestyMales wear kippot as a sign of modestyWomen wear clothes that cover their knees, elbows and collar boneWhen they marry, women cover their hair

  • KosherJewish people are only supposed to eat food that follow the rules of koshroot.Jews can only eat meat of animals that chew its cud and have split hooves. The animal must be slaughtered in the quickest and most painless way possible.

  • Tefilah (Prayer)A siddur is a prayer book.Males above the age of 13 wear tefillin while they pray.Its better to pray at synagogue (AKA shul or temple) with a minyan (group of 10 men)Jews pray three times a day:Shacharit in the morningMinchah in the afternoonMaariv in the evening

  • RabbiRabbi = Jewish clergyHead of the synagogueCan NOT forgive sins like Catholic priests**Pictures of Rabbis off Google

  • SabbathAKA ShabbatFriday night-Saturday = Day of rest

  • Major HolidaysThe High holy days:Rosh HashanahYom KippurSukkotShmini AtzeretSimchat TorahMan blowing a shofar**Symbolism of shofar

  • Major HolidaysOther Important holidays include:Pesach (Passover)Shavuot when the Jews received the Torah on Mt SinaiChanukah

    Even though Chanukah occurs earlier in the year, it occurred later in Jewish history

  • Mount Sinai

  • PopulationTotal population - Estimated 13 millionRegions with significant populations:Israel5,309,000United States 5,275,000France 492,000Canada 373,000United Kingdom 297,000Russia 228,000Argentina 184,000Germany 118,000Australia 103,000Brazil 96,000Ukraine 80,000South Africa 72,000Hungary 50,000Mexico 40,000Population data from a 2006 study by The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute

  • Judaism is determined by maternity if your mom is Jewish, you are JewishWhat sect of Judaism you are is determined by paternity if your dad is Israeli, you are Sephardic but if your dad is European, you are Ashkenazi.

  • Jewish SectsMore strict less strict

  • IsraelEstablished May 14th 1948 (5 Iyar 5708)1st Prime Minister David Ben Gurion1st President - Chaim WeizmannCurrent Prime Minister Ehud OlmertCurrent President - Shimon Peres

    (power wise) president of israel=vice president of U.S.

  • IsraelCapital JerusalemOfficial languages Hebrew and ArabicType of Government - Parliamentary democracyCurrency - Shekel

  • Who is believed to have founded the Israelite nation? a) Moses b) Abraham c) David d) Solomon

    Which of the following is not a belief of Judaism? a) All people are equal before God. b) Kings are bound by Gods law. c) The rich and the powerful must protect the poor and the weak. d) There are many gods, each of whom should be worshiped equally.

    This map is a smaller view of the delta region of Egypt and an overall look at Canaan. It shows the likely exit path of the Israelites when they left Egypt after hundreds of years of bondage, as led by G-d and Moses. It shows the military campaigns which Joshua led to capture the land of Canaan (the promised land).