searching for the ancient israelites

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Searching for the Ancient Israelites. Mike Bryant First Lutheran Church. Course Overview. Or Old Testament History in 2 Slides or Less. Course Overview. Origins: the Israelites before ca. 1200 B.C. Sojourn in Egypt The Exodus Emergence in Canaan Toward a kingdom (1200-931 B.C.) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Ancient Israel

Searching for the Ancient IsraelitesMike BryantFirst Lutheran ChurchCourse OverviewOrOld Testament History in 2 Slides or LessOrigins: the Israelites before ca. 1200 B.C.Sojourn in EgyptThe ExodusEmergence in CanaanToward a kingdom (1200-931 B.C.)Era of the JudgesThe PhilistinesFoundation of the monarchyDavid & SolomonCourse OverviewThe Kingdom DividedIsrael: the northern kingdom (931-722 B.C.)Israel falls to the AssyriansJudah: the southern kingdom (931-586 B.C.)The Babylonian captivityA Conquered PeoplePersian rule: Cyrus the Great (539-332 B.C.)Greek rule: Alexander, Ptolemies and Seleucids (332-164 B.C.)Independence under the Maccabees (164-63 B.C.)Roman rule Course OverviewEgypt & CanaanTrade, then migration, then hostilitiesHyksos (Canaanite) rule (1650 B.C. 1550 B.C.)Dating the ExodusNo firm evidence, biblical or otherwiseStela of Pharaoh Merneptah, 1208 B.C. mentions IsraelIsraelite originsArchaeological record begins 1200 B.C.Links to Hyksos and habiru

Review 1

Toward a KingdomBy 1200 B.C. a people calling themselves Israel and/or Hebrews existed in CanaanMultiple tribes but belief in a common ancestor: AbrahamBelief in a shared history: the ExodusWorship one god: YahwehDefining IsraeliteThe Cult of YahwehYHWH: the Hebrew name for GodNo vowels in ancient HebrewOriginal pronunciation unknownYahweh most common renderingJehovah anotherYahweh the god who revealed himself to Abraham & MosesCovenant between Yahweh and IsraelitesAn exclusivity agreementThe Cult of YahwehMidianite origins?Midian one of Abrahams sons (Genesis 25)Moses visits Midian after fleeing Egypt

Moses was minding the flock of his father-in-law Jethro, priest of Midian. He led the flock along the side of the wilderness and came to Horeb, the mountain of God. There the angel of the Lord appeared to him in the flame of a burning bush.Exodus 3:1-2

The Cult of YahwehPossible Egyptian references to a god named Yahweh13th century BCShasu-Bedusoutheast of Dead Sea & Sinai

The Cult of YahwehMonotheism or henotheism?Henotheism: only one god is worshipped but existence of other gods is acknowledged

Then Moses and the Israelites sang this song to the LordWho among the gods, O Lord, is like you?Exodus 15Among the gods, not one is like you, O LordPsalms 86:8You shall have no other god to set against meyou shall not bow down to them or worship them, for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous god.Exodus 20The Cult of YahwehThe Tabernacle: original shrine of YahwehHebrew for dwelling placei.e., for the Divine presenceA tent constructed according to Gods specifications, described in ExodusAn outer chamber and the holy of holies

The Cult of YahwehThe Ark of the CovenantHolds tablets containing 10 commandmentsGods throne?

From the cover, between the two Cherubim over the Ark, I shall deliver to you all my commands to Israelites.Exodus 25:22The Ark of God, which bears the name of The Lord of Hosts, who is enthroned upon the cherubim2 Samuel 6:2 The Cult of YahwehThe Ark of the CovenantPriests of Yahweh carry it before the army to ensure victory

When they came to a certain threshing floor, the oxen [transporting the Ark] stumbled, and Uzzah reached out to the Ark of God and took hold of it. The Lord was angry with Uzzah and struck him down for his rash act.2 Samuel 6:6-7Bible presents judges as a series of 12 national leadersReality is probably that judges were local, leading their tribe, or possibly a confederation of a few tribesThe Song of Deborah (Ch5), describing a battle, lists 10 tribes, 4 of whom did not join the fightLater chapters describe fighting amongst the tribesAbimelech described as prince over Israel for 3 years (Ch9) but details of his rise and fall are all localized in ShechemThe Judges

What is a biblical judge?No concept of permanent governmentSettling disputes only peacetime governmentJudge=Hebrew word shaphetLocal wise folk gain authority by charisma and reputation for fairness

The JudgesAt that time Deborah wife of Lappidoth, a prophetess, was judge in Israel. It was her custom to sit beneath the Palm-tree of Deborah and the Israelites went up to her for justice.Judges 4:4-5What is a biblical judge?No concept of permanent governmentCharisma equated with divine favor: the Spirit of Yahweh was upon themDeborah described also as a prophetessOffice of judge not hereditary; 12 described arise spontaneously in different tribes

The JudgesWhat is a biblical judge?Occasional military leadersJudge only concept of a leader though judging and military leadership very differentSame wise charismatic people trusted to judge are turned to in times of military crisis

The JudgesGrowing distinction between military and judicial leaders without corresponding terminologyDeborah Female judge but as a woman cannot lead armyAppoints Barak to act as generalBarak agrees only on condition that she accompany himShe warns that his eventual victory will bring him no glory because the enemy will fall into the hands of a woman; he goes anywaySong of Deborah (Ch5) considered oldest fragment in the Biblevery similar to ancient Canaanite battle poems

The JudgesGrowing distinction between military and judicial leaders without corresponding terminologyGideonMidianites have conquered IsraelGideon arises as a military hero apparently out of nowhere: look at my clan: it is the weakest in Manasseh and I am the least in my fathers familyGideons people try to offer him permanent leadership and a dynasty

The JudgesGrowing distinction between military and judicial leaders without corresponding terminologyGideonMidianites have conquered IsraelGideon arises as a military hero apparently out of nowhere: look at my clan: it is the weakest in Manasseh and I am the least in my fathers familyGideons people try to offer him permanent leadership and a dynasty

The JudgesWhat is happening during the era of the Judges?Conflict and co-existence with CanaanitesBattles against Canaanite kings, absorption of Canaanite territoryDeborah/Barak vs. Jabin, Canaanite King of HazorApparent peaceful blending with Canaanites as evidenced by repeated flirtation with pagan cults of Baal and AsherahJudge Gideon also has a Canaanite name: Jerub-Baal (let Baal plead)Bible explains this as a nickname for tearing down Baals altar

The JudgesWhat is happening during the era of the Judges?Conflicts with Trans-Jordanian peoples:Arameans, Amonnites, Moabites, MidianitesIsraelitesor at least some tribestemporarily succumb to foreign rulersConflicts among the Israelite tribesAll the Israelites from Dan to Beersheba join forces against BenjamitesPunishment for disturbing story in chapter 19Conflicts with the Philistines

The JudgesOne of the Sea Peoples described by the EgyptiansVikings of the Mediterranean worldEgyptian word is PelesetGenerally equated to Aegean PelasgiansInhabitants of Greece and/or Western Asia MinorArchaeological finds similar to Mycenaean GreeceFirst mentioned by Homer in The Iliad as allies of Troy

The Philistines"I will tell you truly all," replied Dolon. "To the seaward lie the Carians, the Paeonian bowmen, the Leleges, the Cauconians, and the noble Pelasgi.The Iliad, Book X

Carve out a niche in southwestern Palestine (modern Gaza strip) beginning around 1200 B.C.Palestine derived from PhilistinePossibly settled as vassals by EgyptFive city-states

The Philistines

Conflict with Israelites: DanPhilistias northern neighborSamson a DaniteMigration of Dan

The Philistines

Capture the ArkPhilistines camp near AphekIsraelites take Ark from Shiloh, hoping for divine assistance in battlePhilistines rout Israelites, kill sons of Priest EliMove Ark from town to town, but Yahweh plagues locals with hemorrhoidsFinally move Ark into temple of major god, DagonStatue of Dagon found prostrated before Ark, twicePhilistines rid themselves of the Ark

The Philistines

A response to Philistine threatSamuel, king-makerJudge and prophetSaul, a Benjamite, chosenAnointed by SamuelInitial victory over AmonitesEarly victories over PhilistinesBreaks their strangle-hold on iron trade

The Monarchy

David & SaulLyre-player in Sauls courtSoothes king when evil spirit afflicted himFells the Philistine giant GoliathSlays 200 Philistines to earn princesss handHis military successes earn Sauls jealousyDavid and his band flee into the wildernessBecomes a mercenary leader, fights for Philistines


David King (ca. 1010 B.C.)Saul dies in battleIsh-Bosheth succeeds but Judah recognizes DavidIsh-Bosheth murdered, kingdom unitedDavids conquestsZenith of Israels political powerJebusite (Canaanite) city of JerusalemDavids capital


Solomon King (ca. 970-931 B.C.)Disputed successionSon of Davids Jebusite wife, BathshebaContinues Davids gloryBuilds TempleRespected world leaderMarries Pharaohs daughterAllied with Hiram of TyreVisited by Queen of Sheba


Decline beginsLoses Aram in north and EdomRevolt of JeroboamForeman of forced laborersConspires against Solomon, is discovered and flees to Egypt