chapter 2, section 5 roots of judaism. about 4000 years ago, the ancient israelites (hebrews)...
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Chapter 2, Section 5
•Roots of Judaism
Roots of Judaism• About 4000 years ago, the ancient Israelites
(Hebrews) developed the religion of Judaism
• Monotheistic– Different from all others nearby
“I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the
land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall have no other gods before
Me. - God to Moses(Hebrew bible)
Still a major religion today
Ancient Israelites Israelites also known as Hebrews They were monotheistic The Israelites recorded events and laws in the Torah The Torah, their most sacred text, includes the first five
books of the Hebrew Bible (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy).
The Hebrew Bible includes a total of 24 books. Additional laws and customs were written in a much later written text, the Talmud.
The Ancient IsraelitesAccording to the Torah, a man by the name of Abraham lived near Ur in Mesopotamia; about 2000 B.C. he and his family migrated to Canaan. He is considered to be the father of the Israelite people
The Israelites believe that God made a covenant with Abraham:1. God declared that He would have a special relationship with Abraham and his descendants2. God declared Canaan would one day belong to the Israelites. Making Canaan their “promised land”
2 key beliefs in Judaism
Moses• An Israelite named Moses later renewed God’s covenant with the Israelites.
Many Israelites migrated to Egypt due to famine and became enslaved according to the Book of Genesis. In the Book of Exodus, Moses tells the Israelites that in return for faithful obedience to God, God will lead them out of bondage and into the promised land. Moses leads the Israelites out of bondage and 40 years later they reached Canaan. However, Moses died just before they arrived.
The Kingdom of Israel
DavidThe Torah tells of 12 separate tribes of Israel that had feuded up until 1000B.C. Then David, a strong and wise king, united these tribes into a single nation.
SolomonSon of David, followed in his fathers footsteps and turned the city of Jerusalem into an impressive capital.
By 1000b.c., Israelites had set up kingdom of Israel
Israel Under Solomon
•Solomon’s building projects •Required high taxes•Lots of forced labor•Revolts started after his death in 922 B.C.
•Revolts lead to a split kingdom• Israel in North• Judah in South
Israel Under Solomon• Independent for 200 years• 722 B.C., Assyrians conquered Israel• 586 B.C. Babylonians conquered Judah
•Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the great temple•Forced Israelites into exile•~50 years later, Cyrus the Great defeated Babylonians, freed the Israelites•Most stayed and lived under Persian rule
The Ten CommandmentsAt the heart of Judaism are the Ten Commandments, a set of laws that Jews believe God gave to them through Moses.
Still a major religion today
Influenced other monotheistic religions,
Christianity & Islam. Both honor Abraham,
Moses, the prophets & teach ethical world view
Judaism Teaches About Law and Morality
Law was central to the Israelites Torah included many laws.
CleanlinessFood preparationCriminal actsMoral principals
Israelite society was patriarchal Throughout history, prophets (such as Jeremiah &
Isaiah), emerge to interpret God’s willRemind Jewish people of their dutiesTaught strong code of ethics (moral standards)
Many Jews left Judah & spread around the world (Diaspora)