apa style-writing guid
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Using APA Style Running head: USING APA STYLE: A BRIEF GUIDE
Using APA Style: A Brief Guide to Formatting Papers Binghamton University
Using APA Style Using APA Style: A Brief Guide to Formatting Papers
Finding Information in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) APA TOPIC Abbreviations Appendixes Figures Font (typeface) Headings (levels of) Margins Numbers Order of Manuscript Pages Page Headers Page Numbers Punctuation Quotations Reference Citations (in text) Reference List References (elements & examples) Running Head Sample Paper in APA format Seriation Spaces Tables Title Page 103-111 205-207, 299-300 176-201, 302 285-286 111-115, 289-290 286-287 122-130 287-288 288 288 78-88, 290-291 117-122, 292-293 207-214 215-231, 299 231-281 10-12, 296 306-320 115-117, 292 290-291 147-176, 301-302 10-12, 296-298, 306 PAGE NUMBER(S)
American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Using APA Style Order of Manuscript: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Title page (separate page) Abstract (separate page) Text (start on a separate page) References (start on a separate page) Appendixes (start each on separate page)
Title Page: Title should be 10 - 12 words Byline = Author's Name + Institutional Affiliation Author First Name + Middle Initial + Last Name (Omit all titles and degrees) Institutional Affiliation "Binghamton University" Title & Byline title caps, double-space, center-aligned, center vertically Instructor's Name [NOTE: This information is NOT APA, but PLEASE include!] Header = Page Header + 5 spaces + Page Number Page Header First 2 or 3 words from the title Page Number Title Page = page 1 Header title caps, double-spaced Running Head = The words "Running head:" + ABBREVIATED TITLE Abbreviated title MAX 50 characters, all uppercase letters Running head top of page, left-aligned Subsequent Page Formatting: First Page of Text Begin on new page [if no abstract, then first page of text will be page 2] Same header as title page in top right hand corner Title top of page, center-aligned, double-spaced Text double-spaced, sections follow each other without a break Watch out for orphans!
Margins, Alignment, Lines, and Font: 1" margin at the top, bottom, right, and left of every page Text justification left-aligned (right margin uneven) Indent the first line of every paragraph 5 - 7 spaces (use tab key--set to 1/2 ") Do NOT use hyphenation function to break words at the end of lines Do NOT put more than 27 lines of text on a page Use a serif font (e.g., Times New Roman or Courier) Do NOT use condensed fonts
Using APA Style Font size should be 12 points Double-space between all lines (i.e., set the line spacing to 2) Do NOT use single-spacing or one-and-a-half spacing
Using APA Style Capitalization and Alignment: lower case no letters are capitalized Title Case (Title Caps) Only the Important Words are Capitalized Sentence case (Sentence caps) Only the first word is capitalized UPPER CASE ALL LETTERS ARE CAPITALIZED
These lines are justified both left and right since the words on the page extend to both the left and right margins. For text within the body of your paper, use left alignment and NOT the left and right justification.
Headings: Level 1 Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading Level 2 Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading Level 3 Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading Level 4 Indented, Italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. Level 5 CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING
Using APA Style How to Determine Which Levels of Heading to Use: # OF HEADING LEVELS IN MANUSCRIPT 1 2 3 HEADING LEVELS (STYLES) USED AND ORDER OF USE Level 1 Level 1 Level 3 Level 1 Level 3 Level 4 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
FOR EXAMPLE: Suppose you have an outline as follows: OUTLINE FORMAT Title of Paper I. Level 3 A. B. C. II. Level 3 A. B. C. III. Level 3 HEADING LEVEL (STYLE) USED Level 1 Topic 1
Subtopic 1A Level 4 Subtopic 1B Level 4 Subtopic 1C Level 4 Topic 2 Subtopic 2A Level 4 Subtopic 2B Level 4 Subtopic 2C Level 4 Topic 3
Using APA Style A. B. C. Subtopic 3A Level 4 Subtopic 3B Level 4 Subtopic 3C Level 4
Note that the paper actually has three levels of headings: (a) Title (b) Roman Numerals (Topic), and (c) Capital Letters (Subtopic). Refer to the table entitled "How to Determine Which Levels of Heading to Use." If a paper that has three levels of headings (left column), then the correct Heading Levels (Styles) used are 1, 3, and 4 (right column). Thus, if this paper was formatted using the above outline, the headings would appear in the paper as follows on the next page: Title of Paper Topic 1 The purpose of this sample paper is to demonstrate the use of heading levels in a scholarly paper. Note that the title is the first level and is center-aligned, and uses upper and lower case letters (title capitalization). The next heading level is the first Roman numeral topic and uses the level-three heading style. This style is left aligned, underlined, and uses upper and lower case letters (title capitalization). Note that the paragraph then starts on the next line below the heading and is indented 5-7 spaces. Once an introductory paragraph is written, the author may transition to the first subtopic. Subtopic 1A. The subtopics in this outline use the fourth level (style) of heading which is an indented, underlined, lower case (sentence capitalization) paragraph heading that ends with a period. Note that when using the fourth heading level (style), the paragraph continues on the same line as the heading level. In this paragraph the author would continue to discuss relevant information to subtopic 1A. Not all information need be contained within one paragraph, however. If more than one paragraph is needed to cover the relevant information in subtopic 1A, then the paragraphs
Using APA Style continue in the same manner as this one until all relevant information is discussed. Remember to avoid orphans that are just a few words or a single line of a paragraph that
appears at the very bottom or very top of a page. Always split your paragraphs so that at least two lines of the paragraph are on any given page. Subtopic 1B. For each subtopic in the paper, the format is consistent with other headings at the same level. Thus, subtopic 1B will appear similar to subtopic 1A. The heading is indented, underlined, uses sentence capitalization, ends with a period, and the paragraph continues on the same line. Subtopic 1C. Again, the same style heading is used for subtopic 1C as for subtopics 1A and 1B. When this section is complete and the author is ready to move onto the next section. Topic A Topic A would then continue in this manner . . .
For DSON papers, headings labeled the same as the sections in the paper are very helpful for faculty!
Seriation: TYPE OF SERIATION Simple series of three or more elements within a sentence Complex series within a paragraph + elements do not contain a comma Complex series within a paragraph + at least one element contains a comma Paragraphs in a series EXAMPLE height, width, or depth Stacy, Newcomb, and Bentler The participant's three choices were (a) working with one other participant, (b) working with a team, and (c) working alone. We tested three groups: (a) low scorers, who scored fewer than 20 points; (b) moderate scorers, who scored between 20 and 50 points; and (c) high scorers, who scored more than 50 points. 1. Individuals who . . . [paragraph continues]
Using APA Style
2. Nondepressed persons exposed to . . . [paragraph continues] 3. Depressed persons exposed to . . . [paragraph continues] 4. Depressed and nondepressed participants in the no-noise groups . . . [paragraph continues] NOTE: Series MUST be syntactically and conceptually parallel. Pay particular attention to commas, semi-colons, and periods.
Using APA Style Spacing: Space once after: commas, colons, and semicolons punctuation marks at the end of sentences periods that separate elements of a reference citation periods after initials in personal names Do NOT space after: internal periods in abbreviations around colons in ratios Spacing after other punctuation: PUNCTUATION Hyphen Em Dash En Dash SPACING No space before or after To amplify or digress from the main clause Two hyphens with no space before or after Between words of equal weight in a compound adjective sinfge hypehen with no space before or after Subtraction one hyphen with a space on both sides One hyphen with a space before but not after EXAMPLE around-the-clock studies--published and unpublished--are Chicago-London flight
Minus Negative Number Numbers:
a-b for example, if you used the number -5.25 in a sentence
Use figures to express: all numbers 10 and above all numbers below 10 that are grouped for comparison with numbers 10 and above numbers that immediately precede a unit of measurement numbers that represent statistical or mathematical functions, fractional or decimal quantities, percentages, ratios, and percentiles and quartiles numbers that represent time; dates; ages; sample, sub-sample, or population size; specific numbers of subjects in an experiment; scores and points on a scale; exact sums of money; and numerals as numerals numbers that denote a specific place in a numbered series, parts of books and tables, and each number in a list of four or more numbers all numbers in the abstract of a p