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  • 2/22/2016 PurdueOWL

    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/560/ 1/60

    WelcometothePurdueOWLThispageisbroughttoyoubytheOWLatPurdue(https://owl.english.purdue.edu/).Whenprintingthispage,youmustincludetheentirelegalnoticeatbottom.

    Contributors:JoshuaM.Paiz,ElizabethAngeli,JodiWagner,ElenaLawrick,KristenMoore,MichaelAnderson,LarsSoderlund,AllenBrizee,RussellKeck.Summary:

    APA(AmericanPsychologicalAssociation)styleismostcommonlyusedtocitesourceswithinthesocialsciences.Thisresource,revisedaccordingtothe6thedition,secondprintingoftheAPAmanual,offersexamplesforthegeneralformatofAPAresearchpapers,intextcitations,endnotes/footnotes,andthereferencepage.Formoreinformation,pleaseconsultthePublicationManualoftheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation,(6thed.,2ndprinting).

    GeneralFormatPleaseusetheexampleatthebottomofthispagetocitethePurdueOWLinAPA.

    Toseeasidebysidecomparisonofthethreemostwidelyusedcitationstyles,includingachartofallAPAcitationguidelines,seetheCitationStyleChart.

    YoucanalsowatchourAPAvidcastseriesonthePurdueOWLYouTubeChannel.

    GeneralAPAGuidelines

    Youressayshouldbetyped,doublespacedonstandardsizedpaper(8.5"x11")with1"marginsonallsides.Youshoulduseaclearfontthatishighlyreadable.APArecommendsusing12pt.TimesNewRomanfont.

    Includeapageheader(alsoknownasthe"runninghead")atthetopofeverypage.Tocreateapageheader/runninghead,insertpagenumbersflushright.Thentype"TITLEOFYOURPAPER"intheheaderflushleftusingallcapitalletters.Therunningheadisashortenedversionofyourpaper'stitleandcannotexceed50charactersincludingspacingandpunctuation.

    MajorPaperSections

    Youressayshouldincludefourmajorsections:theTitlePage,Abstract,MainBody,andReferences.

    TitlePage

    Thetitlepageshouldcontainthetitleofthepaper,theauthor'sname,andtheinstitutionalaffiliation.Includethepageheader(describedabove)flushleftwiththe

  • 2/22/2016 PurdueOWL

    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/560/ 2/60

    pagenumberflushrightatthetopofthepage.Pleasenotethatonthetitlepage,yourpageheader/runningheadshouldlooklikethis:

    Runninghead:TITLEOFYOURPAPER

    Pagesafterthetitlepageshouldhavearunningheadthatlookslikethis:

    TITLEOFYOURPAPER

    AfterconsultingwithpublicationspecialistsattheAPA,OWLstafflearnedthattheAPA6thedition,firstprintingsamplepapershaveincorrectexamplesofRunningheadsonpagesafterthetitlepage.ThislinkwilltakeyoutotheAPAsitewhereyoucanfindacompletelistofalltheerrorsintheAPA's6theditionstyleguide.

    Typeyourtitleinupperandlowercaseletterscenteredintheupperhalfofthepage.APArecommendsthatyourtitlebenomorethan12wordsinlengthandthatitshouldnotcontainabbreviationsorwordsthatservenopurpose.Yourtitlemaytakeuponeortwolines.Alltextonthetitlepage,andthroughoutyourpaper,shouldbedoublespaced.

    Beneaththetitle,typetheauthor'sname:firstname,middleinitial(s),andlastname.Donotusetitles(Dr.)ordegrees(PhD).

    Beneaththeauthor'sname,typetheinstitutionalaffiliation,whichshouldindicatethelocationwheretheauthor(s)conductedtheresearch.

  • 2/22/2016 PurdueOWL

    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/560/ 3/60

    ImageCaption:APATitlePage

    Abstract

    Beginanewpage.Yourabstractpageshouldalreadyincludethepageheader(describedabove).Onthefirstlineoftheabstractpage,centerthewordAbstract(nobold,formatting,italics,underlining,orquotationmarks).

    Beginningwiththenextline,writeaconcisesummaryofthekeypointsofyourresearch.(Donotindent.)Yourabstractshouldcontainatleastyourresearchtopic,researchquestions,participants,methods,results,dataanalysis,andconclusions.Youmayalsoincludepossibleimplicationsofyourresearchandfutureworkyouseeconnectedwithyourfindings.Yourabstractshouldbeasingleparagraphdoublespaced.Yourabstractshouldbebetween150and250words.

    Youmayalsowanttolistkeywordsfromyourpaperinyourabstract.Todothis,indentasyouwouldifyouwerestartinganewparagraph,typeKeywords:(italicized),andthenlistyourkeywords.Listingyourkeywordswillhelpresearchersfindyourworkindatabases.

  • 2/22/2016 PurdueOWL

    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/560/ 4/60

    ImageCaption:APAAbstractPage

    PleaseseeourSampleAPAPaperresourcetoseeanexampleofanAPApaper.YoumayalsovisitourAdditionalResourcespageformoreexamplesofAPApapers.

    HowtoCitethePurdueOWLinAPA

    IndividualResources

    Contributors'namesandthelastediteddatecanbefoundintheorangeboxesatthetopofeverypageontheOWL.

    Contributors'names(Lastediteddate).Titleofresource.Retrievedfromhttp://WebaddressforOWLresource

    Angeli,E.,Wagner,J.,Lawrick,E.,Moore,K.,Anderson,M.,Soderlund,L.,&Brizee,A.(2010,May5).Generalformat.Retrievedfromhttp://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

  • 2/22/2016 PurdueOWL

    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/560/ 5/60

    Contributors:JoshuaM.Paiz,ElizabethAngeli,JodiWagner,ElenaLawrick,KristenMoore,MichaelAnderson,LarsSoderlund,AllenBrizee,RussellKeck.Summary:

    APA(AmericanPsychologicalAssociation)styleismostcommonlyusedtocitesourceswithinthesocialsciences.Thisresource,revisedaccordingtothe6thedition,secondprintingoftheAPAmanual,offersexamplesforthegeneralformatofAPAresearchpapers,intextcitations,endnotes/footnotes,andthereferencepage.Formoreinformation,pleaseconsultthePublicationManualoftheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation,(6thed.,2ndprinting).

    InTextCitations:TheBasicsReferencecitationsintextarecoveredonpages169179ofthePublicationManual.Whatfollowsaresomegeneralguidelinesforreferringtotheworksofothersinyouressay.

    Note:APAstylerequiresauthorstousethepasttenseorpresentperfecttensewhenusingsignalphrasestodescribeearlierresearch,forexample,Jones(1998)foundorJones(1998)hasfound...

    APAcitationbasics

    WhenusingAPAformat,followtheauthordatemethodofintextcitation.Thismeansthattheauthor'slastnameandtheyearofpublicationforthesourceshouldappearinthetext,forexample,(Jones,1998),andacompletereferenceshouldappearinthereferencelistattheendofthepaper.

    IfyouarereferringtoanideafromanotherworkbutNOTdirectlyquotingthematerial,ormakingreferencetoanentirebook,articleorotherwork,youonlyhavetomakereferencetotheauthorandyearofpublicationandnotthepagenumberinyourintextreference.Allsourcesthatarecitedinthetextmustappearinthereferencelistattheendofthepaper.

    Intextcitationcapitalization,quotes,anditalics/underlining

    Alwayscapitalizepropernouns,includingauthornamesandinitials:D.Jones.Ifyourefertothetitleofasourcewithinyourpaper,capitalizeallwordsthatarefourletterslongorgreaterwithinthetitleofasource:PermanenceandChange.Exceptionsapplytoshortwordsthatareverbs,nouns,pronouns,adjectives,andadverbs:WritingNewMedia,ThereIsNothingLefttoLose.

    (Note:inyourReferenceslist,onlythefirstwordofatitlewillbecapitalized:Writingnewmedia.)

    Whencapitalizingtitles,capitalizebothwordsinahyphenatedcompoundword:NaturalBornCyborgs.Capitalizethefirstwordafteradashorcolon:"DefiningFilmRhetoric:TheCaseofHitchcock'sVertigo."Italicizeorunderlinethetitlesoflongerworkssuchasbooks,editedcollections,movies,televisionseries,documentaries,oralbums:TheClosingoftheAmericanMindTheWizardofOzFriends.

  • 2/22/2016 PurdueOWL

    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/560/ 6/60

    Putquotationmarksaroundthetitlesofshorterworkssuchasjournalarticles,articlesfromeditedcollections,televisionseriesepisodes,andsongtitles:"MultimediaNarration:ConstructingPossibleWorlds""TheOneWhereChandlerCan'tCry."

    Shortquotations

    Ifyouaredirectlyquotingfromawork,youwillneedtoincludetheauthor,yearofpublication,andthepagenumberforthereference(precededby"p.").Introducethequotationwithasignalphrasethatincludestheauthor'slastnamefollowedbythedateofpublicationinparentheses.

    AccordingtoJones(1998),"StudentsoftenhaddifficultyusingAPAstyle,especiallywhenitwastheirfirsttime"(p.199).

    Jones(1998)found"studentsoftenhaddifficultyusingAPAstyle"(p.199)whatimplicationsdoesthishaveforteachers?

    Iftheauthorisnotnamedinasignalphrase,placetheauthor'slastname,theyearofpublication,andthepagenumberinparenthesesafterthequotation.

    Shestated,"StudentsoftenhaddifficultyusingAPAstyle"(Jones,1998,p.199),butshedidnotofferanexplanationastowhy.

    Longquotations

    Placedirectquotationsthatare40words,orlonger,inafreestandingblockoftypewrittenlines,andomitquotationmarks.Startthequotationonanewline,indented1/2inchfromtheleftmargin,i.e.,inthesameplaceyouwouldbeginanewparagraph.Typetheentirequotationonthenewmargin,andindentthefirstlineofanysubsequentparagraphwithinthequotation1/2inchfromthenewmargin.Maintaindoublespacingthroughout.Theparentheticalcitationshouldcomeaftertheclosingpunctuationmark.

    Jones's(1998)studyfoundthefollowing:StudentsoftenhaddifficultyusingAPAstyle,especiallywhenitwastheirfirsttimecitingsources.Thisdifficultycouldbeattributedtothefactthatmanystudentsfailedtopurchaseastylemanualortoasktheirteacherforhelp.(p.199)

    Summaryorparaphrase

    Ifyouareparaphrasinganideafromanotherwork,youonlyhavetomakereferencetotheauthorandyearofpublicationinyourintextreference,butAPAguidelinesencourageyoutoalsoprovidethepagenumber(althoughitisnotrequired.)

    AccordingtoJones(1998),APAstyleisadifficultcitationformatforfirsttimelearners.APAstyleisadifficultcitationformatforfirsttimelearners(Jones,1998,p.199).

    Contributors:JoshuaM.Paiz,ElizabethAngeli,JodiWagner,ElenaLawrick,KristenMoore,MichaelAnderson,LarsSoderlund,AllenBrizee,RussellKeck.Summary:

  • 2/22/2016 PurdueOWL

    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/560/ 7/60

    APA(AmericanPsychologicalAssociation)styleismostcommonlyusedtocitesourceswithinthesocialsciences.Thisresource,revisedaccordingtothe6thedition,secondprintingoftheAPAmanual,offersexamplesforthegeneralformatofAPAresearchpapers,intextcitations,endnotes/footnotes,andthereferencepage.Formoreinformation,pleaseconsultthePublicationManualoftheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation,(6thed.,2ndprinting).

    InTextCitations:Author/AuthorsAPAstyleh

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