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<ul><li><p>Dr. Ibrahim Mohamed Zinimzp25676@yahoo.com017-2309197Referencing Using APA Style</p></li><li><p>APA Style???Apakah APA?APA style merangkumi panduan untuk menulis dan menyediakan manuscripts seperti dinyatakan oleh American Psychological AssociationDisiplin apa yang menggunakan APA StyleSocial Sciences: Psychology, Sociology, AnthropologyHumanities: Education, Art Interdisciplinary studies: Technical Communication, Composition</p></li><li><p>Kenapa perlu guna format APA?Membenarkan pembaca utk merujuk silang (cross-reference) sumber dgn mudahMemberi format yg konsisten dlm sesuatu disiplinMenjimatkan masaMemberi kredibiliti sbg penulisMembendung penulis daripada plagiarism</p></li><li><p>Merujuk Silang Sumber AndaCross-referencing membenarkan pembaca utk mencari sumber asalnya. Penyelidik-penyelidik mungkin hdk mencari sumber utk penyelidikan mereka sendiri</p></li><li><p>Menggunakan Format yg KonsistenMenggunakan format yg konsisten membantu pembaca memahami arguments anda dan dr sumber yg dibina argument itu. Ianya juga membantu anda berada menjejak semula sumber rujukan apabila membuat argument. </p></li><li><p>KredibilitiPenggunaan APA style yang betul menunjukkan kredibiliti dan akauntabiliti penulis ke atas bahan sumbernya.</p></li><li><p>Mengelakkan PlagiarismPetikan drpd sumber yang sesuai dalam APA style boleh mengelakkan plagiarism, yang merupakan satu kesalahan yg serius yg boleh mengakibatkan kegagalan atau dilucutkan status pemegang biasiswa.</p></li><li><p>PlagiarismPlagiarism is passing off somebody elses work as your ownIn a literature review you are discussing other peoples work so must clearly reference itIn this module you must NEVER copy an entire phrase or sentence even if it is in quotes and properly referencedIf you cannot describe something in your own words then you must not include it in your literature review.If you paraphrase other peoples ideas you still need to reference them</p></li><li><p>What is a Bibliography?What is an Annotation?A Bibliography is a list of citations put together on a topic of interest. The APA format is typically used in creating the typed copy in nursing. </p><p>An Annotation is a commentary a reader makes after critically reading an information source. It can include a summary of the reading, the readers response to the reading, and/or questions/comments addressing the articles clarity, purpose, or effectiveness.</p></li><li><p>What is an Annotated Bibliography?</p><p>An Annotated Bibliography is a list of bibliographic citations that includes a descriptive and evaluative paragraph of each citation. Its overall purpose is to support your study of a particular subject by providing a collection of succinct article summaries that will negate the need for rereading of an article.</p></li><li><p>*Kenapa cite?Citation dalam teksSenarai rujukan</p></li><li><p>*Kenapa Cite?Memberi penghargaan kpd para intelek Menyokong arguments dengan merujuk kpd sumber yang authoritative Membantu pembaca verify tuntutan penyelidikUntuk menunjukkan kajian telah dijalankan</p></li><li><p>*Citation In Text Cite by author and date the works usedFor single authorWalker (2001) compared reaction times </p><p>In a study of reaction times (Walker, 2001) </p><p>Reference: Walker, M. M. (2001). Transfer of lexical information in adults with reading disorders. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 93 (1), 257-267.</p></li><li><p>*Citation In Text 1Cite by author and year only even when reference includes month or date</p><p>Lee (1999) found more turning to acupuncture </p><p>Reference: Lee, J. (1999, September 6). More turning to acupuncture. The Straits Times, p. 28.</p></li><li><p>*Citation In Text 2Cite all authors and date for 2-5 authors</p><p>Duhig, Phares, and Birkeland (2002) did a survey on </p><p>A survey on fathers involvement in (Duhig, Phares &amp; Birkeland, 2002) </p><p>Reference: Duhig, A. M., Phares, V., Birkeland, R. W. (2002). Involvement of fathers in therapy: A survey of clinicians. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 33 (4), 389-395.</p></li><li><p>*Subsequent CitationsFor works with 1 author(Walker, 2001)</p><p>For works with 2 authors, always cite both names every time (Sanders &amp; Dadds, 1993)</p></li><li><p>Subsequent CitationsFor works with 3-5 authorsDuhig, Phares, and Birkeland (2002) did a study on (1st citation)Duhig et al. (2002) found (subsequent citation)Duhig et al. also found (subsequent citation in same para)</p></li><li><p>Citation In Text 6For works with 6 or more authors, the 1st citation &amp; subsequent citations use first author et al. and year</p><p>Kosslyn et al. (1996) </p><p>et al means and others</p></li><li><p>Citation In Text 6For works which shorted to the same, include as many authors as necessary to distinguish the different referencesE.g. Reference: Kosslyn, Koenig, Barrett, Cave, Tang, and Gabrieli (1996) Kosslyn, Koenig, Gabrieli, Tang, Marsolel, and Daly (1996)Cite in text as: Kosslyn, Koenig, Barrett, et al. (1996) and Kosslyn, Koenig, Gabrieli, et al. (1996)</p></li><li><p>Works by Corporate AuthorsSpell out corporate author in full every time if the abbreviation is not common nor easily understandable(University of Pittsburgh, 1998) </p><p>If abbreviation is commonly used(Ministry of Health [MOH], 2001) 1st in text citation</p><p>(MOH, 2001) Subsequent text citation</p></li><li><p>Works with no authorFor articles or chapters with no author Cite with First few words of title and year</p><p>In Text: (Many Mentally Ill, 1994) for a newspaper article from Straits Times</p><p>Reference: Many mentally ill seek black magic cures (1994, May 2). The Straits Times, p. 2.</p></li><li><p>Works with no authorFor periodical, book, brochure or report with no authorCite with Title and year</p><p>The book College Bound Seniors (1979) found that resilience, an ongoing process that requires time and effort and engages people in taking a number of steps. (The Road to Resilience, 2004)</p></li><li><p>Works with no authorFor a work where the author is designated as AnonymousCite as Anonymous and year</p><p>(Anonymous, 1999)</p></li><li><p>Two or more WorksArrange in alphabetical and chronological order as in reference list</p><p>Past research (Phares, 1992, 1996, 1997) has shown </p><p>Several studies (Dienhart &amp; Dollahite, 1997; Phares, 1992) showed that </p></li><li><p>Secondary SourcesIn text, name original work and (as cited in secondary source)In references, list secondary sourceHans Berger was attributed to have first used the term electroencephalogram (EEG) (as cited in Masterpasqua &amp; Healey, 2003).</p><p>Original: Berger, H. (1929). Uber das electrenenkephalogramm des menschen [On the electroencephalogram of humans]. Archives von Pscyhiatrica Nervkrankh, 87, 527-570.Secondary: Masterpasqua, F. &amp; Healey, K. N. (2003). Neurofeedback in psychological practice. Professional Psychology: Research and practice, 34, 652-656.</p></li><li>QuotationsIncorporate short quote (</li><li><p>QuotationsUse to replace Change case of sentence where appropriateUse to indicate omitted words</p><p>She stated, The placebo effect disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner (Miele, 1993, p. 276).</p></li><li><p>QuotationsFor longer quotations (indent without )</p><p>We agree with Obrue (2002), who concluded:Neurofeedback is perhaps best viewed not as an alternative to conventional psychopharmcological agents but rather (p. 8)</p></li><li><p>QuotationsDirect quotations must be accurate &amp; follow wording, spelling, punctuation</p><p>We agree with Obrue (2002), who concluded:Neurofeedback is perhaps best viewed not as an alternative to convetional [sic] psychopharmcological agents but rather (p. 8)</p></li><li><p>Specific Parts of SourceIndicate page, chapter, figure or table</p><p>(Duhig, Phares, &amp; Birkeland, 2002, p. 392)</p><p>(Bell, 2001, chap. 6)</p><p>(Duhig, Phares, &amp; Birkeland, 2002, table 2)</p></li><li><p>Specific Parts of SourceFor web page or article without pagination:(Lim, 2004, para. 3)</p><p>(Bell, 2001, Conclusion section, para. 1)</p><p>(Tan, 2002) Omit if no paragraph number or section headings or confusing to use</p></li><li><p>Personal CommunicationFor interview, email message, letter:</p><p>J.H. Lim (interview, June 4, 2004)J. Tan (personal communication, March 15, 2005)(J. Tan, personal communication, March 15, 2005)</p><p>Normally not cited in References</p></li><li><p>Reference ListDocuments only sources used in research and preparation (not a bibliography)References cited in text must appear in reference listInformation must be complete to enable the source to be retrieved</p></li><li><p>Reference List OrderAlphabetical by authors nameChronological by same authorAlphabetical by titleBaheti, J. R. (2001a). Control Baheti, J. R. (2001b). Roles of Kumpfer, K. L. (1999). Factors Kumpfer, K. L. (2002). Prevention Kumpfer, K. L., Alvarado, R., Smith, P., Yoshikawa, H. (1994). Preventions </p></li><li><p>From Duhig (2002) reference list:Achenbach, T. M., McConaughy, S. H., &amp; Howell, C. T. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implications for cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 213-232.Allison, S., Powrie, R., Pearce, C., &amp; Martin, G. (1995). Continuing medical education in marital and family therapy: A survey of South Australian psychiatrists. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 29, 638-644.Barret, R. L., &amp; Robinson, B. E. (2000). Gay fathers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Carr, A. (1998). The inclusion of fathers in family therapy: A research based perspective. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 20, 371-383. Kaslow, N. J., Kaslow, F. W., &amp; Farber, E. W. (1999). Theories and techniques of marital and family therapy. In M. Sussman, S. K. Steinmetz, &amp; G. W. Peterson (Eds.), Handbook of marriage and the family (pp. 767-792). New York: Plenum Press.Kaslow, N. J., &amp; Thompson, M. P. (1998). Applying the criteria for empirically supported treatments to studies of psychosocial interventions for child and adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 146-155.Phares, V. (1992). Where's Poppa?: The relative lack of attention to the role of fathers in child and adolescent psychopathology. American Psychologist, 47, 656-664.Phares, V. (1996). Fathers and developmental psychopathology. New York: Wiley.Phares, V. (1997). Psychological adjustment, maladjustment, and father-child relationships. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (pp. 261-283). New York: Wiley.Phares, V. (1999). Poppa psychology: The role of fathers in children's mental well being. Westport, CT: Greenwood.Phares, V., &amp; Compas, B. E. (1992). The role of fathers in child and adolescent psychopathology: Make room for daddy. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 387-412.</p></li><li><p>*</p><p>*Using APA properly will allow you to communicate more effectively with other researchers who also use APA. When a style is used consistently, others can easily find where youve listed your resources.**Key Concepts: Plagiarism is a serious offense in the university system, and may result in punishments ranging from failure of the assignment, failure of the course, or expulsion from school. </p><p>There is a handout on OWL about plagiarism and can be found at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/workshops/hypertext/ResearchW/plag.html</p><p>Click to reveal each item.</p></li></ul>