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APA Style Review. Adv Research Design & Analysis Lab. What to do?. What do you do when you have two articles with the SAME AUTHORS and published in the SAME YEAR ? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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APA Style Review

APA Style ReviewAdv Research Design & Analysis LabWhat to do?What do you do when you have two articles with the SAME AUTHORS and published in the SAME YEAR?

Give a full APA citation for the two Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998) articleswrite the citations in the correct reference section order

How to you cite these articles in-text? Provide an example of in-text citations at the end of these sentences (use a different article for each sentencethe sentences are in order)With longer stimulus durations, socially anxious individuals can voluntarily suppress and avoid their initial negative interpretations.

The authors presented either a social or a nonsocial scenario, each followed by three interpretations: positive, negative, and neutral.

ANSWERAmir, N., Foa, E.B., & Coles, M.E. (1998a). Automatic activation and strategic avoidance of threat- relevant information in social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107(2), 285-290. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.107.2.285

Amir, N. Foa, E.B., & Coles, M.E. (1998b). Negative interpretation bias in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 945-957. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00060-6

AnswerWith longer stimulus durations, socially anxious individuals can voluntarily suppress and avoid their initial negative interpretations (Amir, Foa, & Coles, 1998a).

The authors presented either a social or a nonsocial scenario, each followed by three interpretations: positive, negative, and neutral (Amir, Foa, & Coles, 1998b).

What to do?What is another way to write an in-text citation? Cite the second sentence again, but not with an end-of-sentence parenthetical citation.

The authors presented either a social or a nonsocial scenario, each followed by three interpretations: positive, negative, and neutral

Hint: may have to change some of the words in the sentence

AnswerAmir, Foa, and Coles (1998b) presented either a social or a nonsocial scenario, each followed by three interpretations: positive, negative, and neutral.

What KEY WORD is different between the parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence and the in-text citation?answer& = end of sentence, in the parenthesesinterpretations (Amir, Foa, & Coles, 1998b).

and = when the citation is IN THE SENTENCEAmir, Foa, and Coles (1998b) presented

How do you remember this? Dont use symbols in your text! Use words only!What to do?What if you paraphrase more than one article in a single sentence?

Cite this sentence (hint: it paraphrases info from both articles)Socially anxious individuals can voluntarily suppress and avoid their initial negative interpretations, even when presented with both positive and negative social scenarios.

AnswerSocially anxious individuals can voluntarily suppress and avoid their initial negative interpretations, even when presented with both positive and negative social scenarios (Amir, Foa, & Coles, 1998a; Amir, Foa, & Coles, 1998b).

Semicolon between study authors!

Reference section tipsRemember, the reference section is evenly double-spaced throughouthas hanging indentsIs in alphabetical order

Every in-text citation or reference to another article/study MUST have a corresponding, complete reference in the reference sectionIf youre referring to another study that the original authors referenced, check up on that article and give a full citation (you may have to look it up yourself to find the doi)

In-text citation tipsIf you feel like youre saying Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998a) too much, try mixing up your writing with Amir and colleagues (1998a)

If there are 6+ authors, even the first in-text citations should be Amir et al. (2013) or Amir and colleagues (2013)

You do not need to write authors first names in your writing

Any other questions?

What to do?What if I want to use a quotation from one of these articles?

Form a sentence from this snippet from the Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998a) study:examined whether these individuals would show biases in automatic processing and strategic processing of threat-relevant information. answerAmir, Foa, and Coles (1998a) examined whether these individuals would show biases in automatic processing and strategic processing of threat-relevant information (p. 285).OR

The authors examined whether these individuals would show biases in automatic processing and strategic processing of threat-relevant information (Amir, Foa, & Coles, 1998a, p. 285).

Quotations and periodsNotice where the period is located:Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998a) examined whether these individuals would show biases in automatic processing and strategic processing of threat-relevant information (p. 285).

If you have a parenthetical citation at the end of the quotation (which you always should!), then the period goes AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE.

QUOTATIONS AND PERIODSCorrectAmir, Foa, and Coles (1998a) examined whether these individuals would show biases in automatic processing and strategic processing of threat-relevant information (p. 285).

Incorrect Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998a) examined whether these individuals would show biases in automatic processing and strategic processing of threat-relevant information. (p. 285)

What if theres a comma?!CorrectAmir, Foa, and Coles (1998a) examined whether these individuals would show biases in automatic processing and strategic processing of threat-relevant information (p. 285), and so they conducted

Incorrect Amir, Foa, and Coles (1998a) examined whether these individuals would show biases in automatic processing and strategic processing of threat-relevant information, (p. 285) and so they conducted

Speaking of commas

Commas!Know the rules of grammar, commas, and other punctuationDo not use contractions (youre, dont, cant, shouldntthey have no place in professional writing! )

Notice run-on sentences

Notice when to use a comma with the word and (hint: separate with a comma when there are two independent clauses)Correct: I went to the store with my friend, and we had a great time.Incorrect/run-on: I went to the store with my friend and we had a great time.Commas and semicolons!Use a comma when you want to connect two independent clauses with coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet)

Use a semicolon when you want to connect two independent clauses without one of those conjunctionsI went to the store with my friend; we had a great time.

Use a semicolon when you want to connect two independent clauses with conjunctive adverbs (however, moreover, therefore, consequently, etc.)I went to the store with my friend; moreover, we had a great time.

Apa styleAll of this has to do with APA Style!

Look to APA manuals and apastyle.org for guidance on grammar, punctuation, and good writing

http://www.apastyle.org/learn/index.aspx