Using APA Style

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  • Academic and Professional Development Workshops

    WORKSHOP #4

    04/11/14

  • Using APA (6th) Style Objective: To review and practice the different aspects of APA style

  • Using APA Style Why do we use APA style?

    When do we use APA style?

    What are the different aspects of APA style?

  • Aspects of APA Style 1. Writing style

    2. Report structure and content

    3. Formatting Headings

    Data displays

    Crediting sources

  • Headings Headings help readers find key points of your paper and track the development of your thoughts

    APA Style uses five levels of headings

    Level of heading Format

    1 Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

    2 Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

    3 Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.

    4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.

    5 Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.

  • Data displays Data displays can serve several purposes:

    1. Exploration the data contain a message

    2. Communication

    3. Storage

    4. Decoration

    Graphical versus Textual Presentation

  • Statistics in text

    When reporting statistics, include sufficient information to allow the reader to fully understand the analyses conducted

    Enable the reader to replicate what you have done

    APA Manual Sections 4.41 to 4.46 (pp. 116-123)

  • Crediting sources (Chapter 6)

    A critical part of the writing process is helping readers place your contribution in context by citing the researchers who influenced you otherwise it is PLAGIARISM (we will discuss further next week)

    Two main forms of crediting sources 1. Citing references in text

    2. Reference list

    This enables the reader to locate the source of information if they want to learn more

  • Citing references in text Alleyne and Wood (2010) found that peripherally-involved gang youth were more violent than core gang members.

    Past findings include peripherally-involved gang youth were more violent than core gang members (Alleyne & Wood, 2010).

  • Citing references in text

    Authors 1st citation in-text Later citations in-text

    Reference list

    1-2 All authors All authors All authors

    3-5 All authors First author and et al. All authors

    6-7 First author and et al. First author and et al. All authors

    8+ First author and et al. First author and et al. First six authors, an ellipsis (. . .), and the final author.

  • Citing references - books The city of publication, the two letter state code (if American) or the country & the name of the publisher:

    Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition (2nd ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    The inclusion of state or country is new in the 6th edition of APA manual so you might not see them included in older publications!

  • Citing references edited books

    Sheldon, K. M. (2002). The self-concordance model of healthy goal striving: When personal goals correctly represent the person. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 65-86). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

    Chapter info

    Book info

  • Citing references journal articles

    End reference:

    Vallerand, R. J., & Paquet, Y. (2010). On the role of passion for work in burnout: A process model. Journal of Personality, 78, 289-312. doi : 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00616.x

    In text:

    (Vallerand & Paquet, 2010) or Vallerand and Paquet (2010).

  • Citing references internet

    Ulrich, P. (2011). How to reference in APA. Retrieved from: https://moodle.kent.ac.uk/moodle/course/view.php?id=13026.

    In the 6th edition, you dont need to provide retrieval date unless the source is likely to be updated regularly

    In general try to avoid! not peer reviewed

  • Citing references

    Do not forget: Every author you have cited within the body of your essay must be full sourced within your reference list at the end of your essay.

  • Next Tuesday

    Plagiarism vs Paraphrasing

  • Questions?