apa style workshop
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- 1. APA STYLEWORKSHOPTHE BASICSPresented by the SSTC and Library
- 2. Outline For Workshop1. Introduction to APA Style2. First Page Formatting3. In-Text Citations4. Formatting Sources for your Reference Page5. Discussion of Plagiarism6. How to use NoodleBib!
- 3. Introduction to APA Style APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. Purposes: Consistent system for referencing sources through in-text citations and References page Provides avenue to allow for audience investigation of sources and their credibility Avoids plagiarism
- 4. Title Page The title page should contain the title of the paper, the authors name, and the institutional affiliation, all centered. Page header/running head should look
- 5. In-Text Citations When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. Example: This means that the authors last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998). The purpose is to give credit to your source: so, you MUST make reference to the author and year of publication, include the page number if possible (if no page, paragraph number, or Title of the Section) in your in-text reference. All sources that are cited in the text must
- 6. Quotations and In-Text CitationsShort Quotation When directly quoting from a source, you need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). If more than one page, list all pages (pp.). Example - According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers? If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the authors last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. Example - She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as
- 7. Quotations and In-Text CitationsLong Quotations Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free- standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Refer to APA Manual for additional specifics. Example : Joness (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)
- 8. Quotations and In-Text CitationsSummary & Paraphrase If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.) Examples: According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
- 9. The Reference List Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper, including all sources used for the paper. Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay Label this page "References" centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.
- 10. How to Format the References List All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. Referred to as a Hanging Indent Authors names are inverted (last name first) Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. If you have more than one article by the same author, single-author references or multiple-author references with the exact same authors in the exact same order are listed in order by the year of
- 11. How to Format the ReferencesList, contd. Capitalize all major words in journal titles. When referring to books, chapters, articles, or Web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.
- 12. Basic Format for BooksLast name, First Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. (Edition)[if other than the 1st]. City of Publication: Publisher. One Author Brader, T. (2006). Campaigning for hearts and minds: How emotional appeals in political ads work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Two Authors Elder, L. & Paul, R. (2006). The miniature guide to the art of asking essential questions. Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking. Three Authors Miller, T. E., Bender, B. E., & Schuh, J. H. (2005). Promoting reasonable expectations: Aligning student and institutional views of the college experience. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
- 13. Basic Format for an Online DatabaseArticle Authors Last Name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine/Journal/Newspaper Title, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. Retrieved from URL of database home page. Specific Example (from the Academic Search Premier database) Denhart, H. (2008). Deconstructing barriers: Perceptions of students labeled with learning disabilities in higher education. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41, 483- 497. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.
- 14. Basic Format for a Web Page Author, Institution, Company, or Organization Responsible for the Website (if available). (Year, Month Day website was last updated). Title or description of page. Retrieved Month Day, Year you visited the website, from: URL (address of website) Author: Sometimes the person or group responsible for the web page is hard to determine. A library staff person would be happy to help you discover who the author is. Specific Example: LD Online. (2006). Speech and language milestone chart. Retrieved April 11, 2006, from: http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/speech- language/lda_milestones.html.
- 15. Plagiarism: What is it and how do Iavoid it? Plagiarism is using others ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source of that information. To avoid plagiarizing, you must give credit whenever you use: another persons idea, opinion, or theory any facts, statistics, graphs, or drawings information that is not common knowledge quotations or paraphrases of another persons spoken or written words
- 16. Strategies for AvoidingPlagiarismTerms you need to know: Common knowledge - facts that can be found in many places and are likely to be known by most people. Example: President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. This is generally known information. You do not need to document this fact.
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