apa writing style
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APA WRITING STYLESoraya1APA (American Psychological Association) The most commonly used style to cite sources within the social sciences. APA Style originated in 1929, when a group of psychologists, anthropologists, and business managers convened and sought to establish a simple set of procedures, or style rules, that would codify the many components of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension.APA Style consists of rules or guidelines that a publisher observes to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material.Whats Included in APA Style?The list of referencesRequired if you cite any sources in your paperEvery source cited in your paper must appear on the reference list, and every entry in your reference list must be cited in your paperIts written in double-spacedTwo types of citation5Creating the References ListIn APA style essays, all works cited in in-text citations in the body paragraphs are identified in an alphabetical list of References.
This list of References is then included as the last page of the document.6Basic Pattren of References
Within a paragraph, you don't need to repeat the year or other elements of the in-text citation as long as the reference cannot be confused with other cited sources;If you cite a source in one paragraph and then refer to the same text again in the next, its best to re-cite it, so as to avoid confusion;Better to cite too often than too littleIn-text Citations
If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference.If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference.Keep quotations to a minimum (less than 3 per paper)
When do you cite your sources in your paper?ParaphrasingScott (1992) identified
Several researchers (Anthony, 1990; Gregory & Jacobs, 1985; Polk et al., 1980) reported
At the end of a sentence paraphrased from another work (Scott, 1992).Citing while paraphrasingList the last names of all authors the first time you cite them, unless there are more than 5.If there are more than five, or you are citing the paper of 3 or more authors for a second or more time, list last name of first author, followed by et al., and the date.ExamplesScott, Williamson, and Schaffer (1990) reported that (FIRST TIME)
Scott et al. (1990) reported that (EVERY TIME AFTER)
Scott and Williamson (1990) reported that (FIRST TIME and EVERY TIME)
6 or more authors, use et al., first time and every time.
Citing while quotingYou need to put the author last name(s) and date, like while paraphrasing, but also the PAGE NUMBERS or PARAGRAPH NUMBERS (for online sources).Example: the research findings clearly indicate support for the hypotheses (Douglass, 1986, p. 55).How to set up your paper in APA Use 8 by 11 white paper, with margins of 1 (or 1 )Double space EVERYTHINGFont should be pica 10 pitch or Times Roman 12 pitchSingle spaces between sentencesPage numbers in upper right hand cornersOther rulesTitle page should contain the title of your paper (not a topic, but a title that reflects the content of the paper), your name, the course name the paper is for, and the date you wrote itAPA recommends using a hanging indent: Type the first line of an entry flush left and indent any additional lines one-half inch (or five spaces).Other rulesOther rulesHeadingsUsing headings makes it easier to navigate your paper. In a short paper like your lit review, youd probably only use the first-level heading, but this is what they look like in order:First-Level HeadingSecond-Level HeadingThird-level heading. Begin text of paragraph
If you have references, tables, and appendicesthe order is
WRITING IN REFERENCESSingle-authored bookPerloff, R. M. (1995). The dynamics of persuasion. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
*Note: In the 5th edition of APA, there is NO underlining (everything that was underlined is now in italics).Reissued bookNewcomb, H. (Ed.). (1995). Television: The critical view (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
*Note: Capitals in the title of the book are restricted to the first letter of the first word of the title, the first letter of any proper names, and the first letter of the first word after a semicolon, period, or question mark.Dual-authored bookBaran, S. J., & Davis, D. K. (1995). Mass communication theory: Foundations, ferment and future. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
*Note: when listing authors, use an ampersand (&) in the reference list, not and. Essay or chapter in an edited bookBryant, J. (1989). Message features and entertainment effects. In J. J. Bradac (Ed.), Message effects in communication sceince (pp. 231-262). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
*Note: You must include the page numbers if youre just referencing one part of a book.Single-authored articleGarramone, G. M. (1985). Effects of negative political advertising: The roles of sponsor and rebuttal. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 29, 149-159.
*Note: The first letter of every important word in the title of the journal is capitalized.Two or more authors (article)Suzuki, S., & Rancer, A. S. (1994). Argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness: Testing for conceptual and measurement equivalence across cultures. Communication Monographs, 61, 256-279.
*Note: Can you find the volume number and page numbers in this citation?Unpublished convention paperThomas, S., & Gitlin, T. (1993, May). Who says theres a dominant ideology and what happens if that concept is falsified? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Washington, DC.
Note: Conference papers are less highly regarded than published worksInternet articles based on a print sourceVandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates. [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123.
*Note: Sometimes electronic versions are different from the print versions.Article in an internet-only journalFrederickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html
*Note: this would be the correct citation format for the article you abstracted for classGeneral Guidelines for Listing Authors:Alphabetize entries in the list of references by authors last names; If a work has no author, alphabetize it by its title;The first element of each entry is important because citations in the text of the paper refer to it and readers will be looking for it in the alphabetized list. Make sure the first element of each entry corresponds with your in-text citations;The date of publication appears immediately after the first element of the citation.
33When there is no authorWork by the same author(Different year) List the entries by year, the earliest first.Schlechty, P. C. (1997).Schlechty, P. C. (2001).(The same year) In the parentheses, following the year, add a, b, c, etc. Use these same letters when giving the year in the in-text citation. Durgin, P. A. (2003a). At-risk behaviors in children.Durgin, P. A. (2003b). Treating obesity with psychotherapy
Article in a jornalArticle In A Journal Paginated By Volume:After the italicized title of the journal, give the volume number (also italicized), followed by the page numbers:Morawski, J. (2000). Social psychology a century ago. American Psychologist, 55, 1427-1431. Article In A Journal Paginated By Issue:When each issue of a journal begins with page 1, include the issue number in parentheses after the volume number. Italicize the volume number but not the issue number.Smith, S. (2003). Government and nonprofits in the modern age. Society, 40(4), 36-45.
Article in Mass MediaArticle In A Magazine:In addition to the year of publication, list the month and, for weekly magazines, the day. If there is a volume number, include it (italicized) after the title.Raloff, J. (2001, May 12). Lead therapy wont help most kids. Science News, 15, 292.
Article In A Newspaper:Begin with the name of the author followed by the exact date of publication. Page numbers are introduced with p. (or pp.).Lohr, S. (2004, December 3). Health care technology is a promise unfinanced. The New York Times, p. C5.
37Book with an editorFor a book with an editor but no author, begin with the name of the editor (or editors) followed by the abbreviation Ed. (or Eds.) in parentheses:Bronfen, E., & Kavka, M. (Eds.). (2001). Feminist consequences: Theory for a new century. New York: Columbia University Press.For a book with an author and an editor, begin with the authors name. Give the editors name in parentheses after the title of the book, followed by the abbreviation Ed. (or Eds.):Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals (K. V. Kukil, Ed.). New York: Anchor.38ARTICLE OR CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOKAfter the author, year of publication, and title of the article or chapter, write In and give the editors name, followed by Ed. in parentheses; the title of the book; and the page numbers of the article or chapter in parentheses. End with the books publication information:Luban, D. (2000). The ethics of wrongful obedience. In D. L. Rhode (Ed.), Ethics in practice: Lawyers roles, responsibilities, and regulation (pp. 94-120). New York: Oxford University Press.
39An article from a newspapers searchable websiteGive the URL for the site, not for the exact source:Cary, B. (2001, June 18). Mentors of the m