apa style guidelines
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DESCRIPTIONAPA Style Guidelines. Getting Started. Physical Format. No title page necessary. Black ink on white paper. Non-descript font (Times Roman—12). 1-inch margins all around (except for page #s). Double-spaced throughout. Fasten pages with a paper clip. Heading, Title, and Page Number. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
MLA Style Guidelines (5th Ed.)
APA Style GuidelinesGetting Started
Physical FormatNo title page necessary.Black ink on white paper.Non-descript font (Times Roman12).1-inch margins all around (except for page #s).Double-spaced throughout.Fasten pages with a paper clip.Heading, Title, and Page NumberHeadingtop line, flush left (ds)Your nameProfessors nameCourse title and numberDate
References PageNew PageDouble-spaced Center References at the top.Alphabetical Order--If no author, alphabetize by the title.ReferencesIndent all but the first line in each entry by one-half inch.Italicize the titles of books and periodicals.Go through your paper to make sure all sources are on the list
Works CitedAuthorsBall, E. (2000). Slaves in the family. New York: Ballantine Books.If an editor: Rasgon, N. L. (Ed.). (2006). The effects of estrogen on brain function. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Do not include titles of authorse.g. PhD, Dr., Sir.
Works by the Same AuthorArrange according to date, earliest first:Jules, R. (2003). Internal memos and other classified documents. London: Hutchinson.Jules, R. (2004). Derelict Cabinet. London: Corgi-Transworld.Works CitedTwo AuthorsHardt, M., & Negri, A. (2000). Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UniversityPress.
Works CitedJournal ArticleKellogg, R. T. (2001). Competition for working memory among writing processes. American Journal of Psychology, 114, 175-192.Works CitedElectronic SourcesOnline publication by known author:Carr, A. (2003, May 22). AAUW applauds Senate support of title IX resolution. Retrieved from http://www.aauw.org/about/newsroom/press_releases/030522.cfmOnline PublicationsNewspaper:Erard, M. (2001, November 16). A colossal wreck. Austin Chronicle. Retrieved from http://www.austinchronicle.com Online PublicationsArticle in an online magazine:McClure, L. (2003, February 18). The Salon interview: Molly Ivins. Salon. Retrieved from: http://www.salon.comReview of CapitalizationManuscript page header:
Just the Important Words
The Remains of the DayReview of CapitalizationBook Edition
Person is an editor
Punctuating Quotations[. . .] use within brackets to show omissions within a quote.[ ] use brackets around your comments or explanations in a quote.( ) use parentheses outside the quote.
In-Text CitationsAuthor named in your text: The influential sociologist Daniel Bell (1973) noted a shift in the United States to the postindustrial society (p. 3).Author not named in your text: In 1997, the Gallup poll reported that 55% of adults think secondhand smoke is very harmful (Saad, 1993, p. 4).In-Text CitationsWork by a single author:(Bell, 1973, p. 3).Work by two authors: (Suzuki & Irabu, 2002, p. 404).Work by six or more authors:(Francisco et al., 2006, p. 17).In-Text CitationsWork by an unknown author:(Dealing the Peace Process, 2003, p. 44).Parts of an electronic source:(Robinson, 2007 7).Work quoted in another source:Saunders and Kellmans study (as cited in Rice, 2006a)Punctuating Block QuotesIn a rare circumstance your quote runs more than four lines. . .Set it off beginning a new line.Indent ten spaces from the left margin.Type it double-spaced without quotation marks.Place the page number after the final period.Ending QuotesWhat to do when the quote has ending punctuation such as ? or !How can I describe my emotions? wonders the doctor in Mary Shellys Frankenstein (42).Youve got to be carefully taught, wrote Oscar Hammerstein II about how racial prejudice is perpetuated.AnnotationsProvide a brief summary of the chapter, article, book, or website here. Use quotations sparingly. Use words such as claims, explains, or suggests to introduce the thesis of the article. For example, Dibattista claims that there are many sides to Chloe.
AnnotationsIn your second paragraph, assess the work and its value. Is it factual, unbiased, well documented? Is the source current? Then mention if you will be using the source in your research paper.
Reducing Bias in LanguageBe more specific, not less- Age ranges rather than broad categories. - Men and womenrather than mankind - Avoid the generic he - Specific ethnic or race labelingMention differences only when relevant.Be Sensitive to LabelsRespect peoples preferences.Avoid labeling when possible Example: the depressed, LDs, the elderlyUse people first language Example: people over the age of 65, people with learning disabilities.
Standards of ComparisonBe aware of hidden standards that compare the study group to an invisible (standard) group. Example: culturally deprived (by what standard?)Unparallel nounsExample: man and wifeinstead of husband and wife.
Standards of ComparisonAvoid abnormal/normal comparisonsExample: Lesbians and the general publicinstead, Lesbians and women identified as heterosexual. Example: People with disabilities and normal peopleinstead, People with disabilities and people without disabilities.