Advanced APA Style Writing in APA Style on the course webpage
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Advanced APA StyleWriting in APA Style on the course webpageHow to Answer APA QuestionsLook it up in the manualGoogle searchOWL (Purdue Online Writing Lab)Use the APA tab on the course websiteUse the resources on the library websiteAsk me or other faculty membersAsk the person sitting next to youClarity and PrecisionThe prime objective of scientific writing is clear communication (p. 65).Say only what needs to be said (p. 67).Make certain that every word means exactly what you intend it to mean (p. 68).APA ReferencesReferences should provide the most stable and direct route to the material possible.Each section of the reference ends in a period.One component of the reference will be italicized.Sources must be public.Learn the basic form of each section then start learning the variations.References are in alphabetical order, have hanging indents, and are double line spaced within and between.
Author Date Title Source APA References: AuthorBasic formJohnson, B. A.Johnson, B. A., Smith, R. S., & Jones, Q.Group: Spell it out and end with a periodNational Institute of Mental Health.The strange case of two authors (, &)APA References: DateBasic form(1967).Conference paper(1967, April).Magazines and newspapers(1967, April 27).Rarely will you use month and day.
APA References: TitleBasic formJobs in America: A century of inconsistency.Dont italicize the title if the source is italicized.
APA References: SourceBasic form: BookNew York, NY: Pearson Publishing.Basic form: Chapter in a book. In J. B. Carroll & J. Waggoner (Eds.), Surviving teacher preparation in America (pp. 47-62). New York, NY: Pearson Publishing.Basic form: JournalJournal of Teacher Education, 11(6), 94-107.Basic form: Online sourceRetrieved from http://teaching.up.edu/edresearchWhat to Capitalize in a Journal Name?Major Words (section 4.15)All words of 4 or more lettersMinor words (3 or fewer letters)ConjunctionsArticlesShort prepositions
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis ManagementAPA ReferencesJohnson, B. A., Smith, R. S., & Jones, Q. (1967). Jobs in America: A century of inconsistency. Journal of Teacher Education, 11(6), 94-107.
Reviewing ArticlesCitation of an article implies that you have personally read the cited work. [p.169]Say only what needs to be said. [3.08]When to use the phrase research says Research says that cooperative learning has social benefits.Use this structure only when research is plural, otherwise omit the phrase and cite the specific research.Key TermsTo introduce key terms, put them in italic. Italic can be used for emphasis if emphasis can not be shown through syntax. Ironic, slang, or coined expressions are in quote marks. Sometimes it is difficult to tell the difference. When in doubt use italic.After a key term or coined expression has been intro-duced do not put them in italics or quote marks again. Note: Single quotation marks are only used in direct quotations to set off material that was in double quotation marks in the original
APA Manual Sections 4.21 and 4.07ContractionsDo not use contractions in APA writing.Ok, it alludes to this in about 10 places in the manual although it never says it. The manual does say that scientific writing is formal writing and there is general agreement in the research community that use of contractions is an informal device.Running HeadTop of every page, flush leftPreceded by Running head:All CapsNo more than 50 characters including spaces and punctuation.APA Manual Section 8.03Direct QuotationsUse them when paraphrasing would detract from the meaning. This means you would almost never use them.Direct quotations always require a page number citation.Page number format(Johnson & Smith, 2010, p. 46)(Johnson & Smith, 2010, pp. 112-113)Before the period in short quotes and after the period in block quotes (more than 40 words)APA Manual Section 6.03Ad Homonym Ideas make the pointnot the attributions of the author.Do not use first names, titles of articles, or employment descriptions.Citations lead the reader to the original text. They are not there to establish the veracity of the ideas presented.Carroll, D. (2012, December 12). Mamas jambalaya: Laissez les bons temps rouler! [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://www.batterjunkie.com/category/dinner/page/5/
Some thoughts on electronic referencesDont end DOIs or URLs with a period.Included a retrieved date for sources that may change (or do not use them).If a real author name is not available use online names.Do not italicize the titles of online articles.Do italicize the name of the source if used in place of the title.Try not to break URLs. If you do, break at punctuation or slashes.APAFor how long should original data gathered in a research study be kept?Five years after the date of publication.(Section 1.08)18ParenthesesTo set off structurally independent elementsReduce the use of parentheses to insert related but independent ideas in a single sentence. Write two sentences.Learn how to use EM dashes but use those cautiously as well. (4.13) APA Manual Section 4.09Headingshttp://teaching.up.edu/edresearch/pages/apa-headings.htmlOnly use a subordinate heading if the section in which it is used requires at least 2 labeled sub-sectionsAPA Manual Section 3.02 and 3.03IntroductionThe introduction to a manuscript [chapter 1] does not carry a heading that labels it as the introduction.It is probably a good idea not to label the introductions to each section with a level 2 heading as well.APA Manual Section 3.03Etc.Do not use etc. This is imprecise writing.If there are more components of a list, then list them.URLsPrecede the URL with Retrieved from Use the complete URL (http://teaching)Do not make them blue or underlined.Do not end a URL with a period.Do not use urls for proprietary databases.Included a retrieved date for sources that may change (or do not use them).Try not to break URLs. If you do, break at punctuation or slashes.
APA Manual Sections 6.31 and 7.01 for examplesSeriation (Lists)Always use the serial or Oxford comma.In any series, all items should be syntactically and conceptually parallel.APA Manual Sections 3.04 and 3.23APAJohnson, Smith, and Jones (2010)(Johnson, Smith, & Jones, 2010)Johnson, R. A., Smith, B. T., & Jones, Q. S. (2010). The use of cooperative strategiesInstructional strategies including direct instruction, cooperative learning, and project-based learningAlways use the serial or Oxford comma (section 4.03)PrecisionApproximations of quantityJohnson (2010) describes a very important attribute. It is much needed and extremely important. describes numerous attributes. Incidental phrasesIn other words, the concept is
APA Manual Section 3.09Type SettingDashesEllipsis Ellipsis. Diacritical marks (rsum) Fractions 1/2Learn to use the indentation controlsTabs are rarely needed for anythingLearn to use style sheets in WordInstructions on the webpage: Formatting APA Style SheetsAPA DashesHyphen: connecting words that represent a single concept (project-based learning)EN Dash: showing relationships of time or distance (79:30 p.m.)EM Dash: inserting an additional thought or digression in the middle of a sentence (John did not goattendance was mandatoryalthough Sally did attend)Avoid EM dashes. Avoid parentheses.AttributionWhen referring to yourself or co-authors use:Personal pronouns (I or we)Do not use third person referents (this researcher)Refer to yourself only when it provides clarityAvoid passive voice (the data were gathered by the researcher)APA Manual Section 3.09 and 3.18Metaphors (Linguistic Devices)Avoid themwell, mostly (section 3.10) Describing something in terms that are not trueHe had gone to the well too often.He got a thunderous response.And our favoritemixed metaphors a theory representing one branch of a growing body of evidence.
Rhetorical QuestionsBy noon, Tim left, and the rest of our group returned to the classroom. Why did this have to happen? What proactive steps should have been taken? How would I respond to Tim the next day? How would Tim respond the next day? How would the rest of the class respond? Was Tims inability to communicate the reason for all this commotion?http://qualtrics.com/university/researchsuite/APAMultiple Citations SimultaneouslyVarious researchers (Mastropieri, Leinart, & Scruggs, 1999; Ates, 2013; Chafouleas, Martens, Dobson, Weinstein, & Gardner, 2004; Lo, Cooke, & Starling, 2011) have identified repeated readings in particular to improve oral reading fluency. Parallel StructureSingular plural agreementFor each child attention was paid to their needs.Subject verb agreement None of the studies is addressing the larger issue.APA Manual Section 3.23Slashesand/orhim/herself
Do not use a slash when a phrase would be clearer. Write for clarity and not efficiency.APA Manual Section 4.11Page NumbersUpper rightPage numbering starts on the first page even if it is a title page.APA Manual Section 8.03