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APA Style


<ul><li> 1. Understanding APA : Grammar, Citation, Format, and Style By Jesse Leraas [email_address]</li></ul> <p> 2. APA Style </p> <ul><li>Why APA Style? </li></ul> <ul><li>Uniformity </li></ul> <ul><li>To track down more information </li></ul> <ul><li>To verify information presented </li></ul> <ul><li>Two basic uses </li></ul> <ul><li>(1) The in-text or () citation allows the reader to find the complete entry on the reference list or bibliography.</li></ul> <ul><li>(2) The full reference/bibliographic entry should provide all the information the reader would need to find the article. </li></ul> <p> 3. APA Style </p> <ul><li>Pocket Guide </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Chapter 1 </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Research </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Evaluating Sources </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Plagiarism (pp. 15-16) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Note Taking </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Paraphrase </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Summary </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Quote </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 4. APA Style </p> <ul><li><ul><li>Chapter 2 </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Parts of a Manuscript/Paper </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Blue Boxes:As Headings</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>(pp. 27-28 ) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Headings (pp. 37-38) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 5. APA Style Headings </p> <ul><li>Remember </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>In the following examples the text should be double spaced but is not. </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 6. APA Style:Headings </p> <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul> <ul><li> The Chinese character for conflict is made up of two different symbols superimposed; one indicates danger while the other signifies opportunity (Hocker &amp; Wilmot, 1985,p. 3 ).Likewise, the difference in whether a conflict has positive or negative outcomes is the management of that conflict (Johnson &amp; Johnson, 1995).The use of both metaphor and framing can play an integral role in conflict management.</li></ul> <ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul> <ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul> <ul><li>This study addressed the following research questions: </li></ul> <ul><li>1.What metaphorical expressions are communicated when</li></ul> <ul><li>interviewees are asked to describe how they personally</li></ul> <ul><li>experienced past interpersonal conflict episodes specific to the five</li></ul> <ul><li>basic conflict orientations of competition, compromise, avoidance,</li></ul> <ul><li>accommodation and collaboration?</li></ul> <p> 7. APA Style:Headings </p> <ul><li>CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENTDATIONS </li></ul> <ul><li>Problem, Methodology and Findings </li></ul> <ul><li>Problem Summary </li></ul> <ul><li> Conflict refers to a broad range of behaviors and is often equated with disagreement, hostility, competition, controversy and incompatibility (Putnam &amp; Jones, 1982, p. 262).Conflict most often arises from peoples needs, and unmet needs do not go away (Williams, 1997).When describing what transpired during a conflict experience, an individuals words become the frame of reference in which the situation is both communicated and understood.</li></ul> <p> 8. APA Style:Headings </p> <ul><li>Presentation Software and Multimedia Techniques </li></ul> <ul><li>Presentation software adds yet another dimension to teaching with technology.Presentation software, such as PowerPoint, has become extremely popular among faculty, who can use it for videoconferences as well as in their classrooms (Saba, 1999, p. 3).This added dimension allows an instructor to present a multimedia event to the class.The class can be face-to-face in the classroom, or it can be in a DE format.According to Lento , many of the latest presentation products are reasonable priced when you consider the educational benefits ( 1999, p. 41 ). </li></ul> <ul><li>Multimedia Techniques </li></ul> <ul><li>Benefits of multimedia techniques. Multimedia formats address multiple learning styles and promote faster learning for more students.Research indicates that the use of multimedia reduces learning time, increases retention, and promotes the skills of problem solving as well as teamwork (Nalepa, 2000,pp . 36-37).</li></ul> <p> 9. APA Style:Headings </p> <ul><li>CHAPTER FOUR:FINDINGS </li></ul> <ul><li>Restatement of the Purpose </li></ul> <ul><li>This study was designed to evaluate learning outcomes for students in DE classes using MS PowerPoint presentations, in which some of the presentations were accompanied by textual information and some of the presentations were narrated by the presenter.It was an attempt to determine if there is a significant difference in learning outcomes for the students given these two methods of presentation.In addition, this study would attempt to determine if there is a direct correlation between students attitudes regarding these two presentation types and their test results. </li></ul> <ul><li>Because of the very low response rate, the results of this study can not only not be generalized to a larger population, they cannot be trusted to accurately reflect the learning outcomes experienced by the students in these classes.They can also not be trusted to accurately reflect the attitudes of the students toward their learning experiences. </li></ul> <ul><li>Sample Size </li></ul> <ul><li>Composition I .The sample size for both classes utilized in this study was small.The Composition I class had 21 students begin the term and 15 completed the class, (Table 4).</li></ul> <p> 10. APA Style </p> <ul><li>Pocket Guide </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Chapter 3</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Punctuation (pp. 39-43) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Mechanics (pp. 44-51) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>General Style (pp. 51-55) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 11. APA Style </p> <ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Use of apostrophe </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Use of comma </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Use of colon </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Brackets </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>[ sic ] </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Ellipsis</li></ul></li></ul> <p> 12. APA Style </p> <ul><li>Grammar (pp.51-59) </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Active Voice </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Passive Voice </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Subject-Verb agreement </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Pronouns </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Parallelism </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Word Choice </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 13. APA Style </p> <ul><li>Numbers (pp.49-50) </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Basic Rule </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Exceptions </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 14. Authors </p> <ul><li>In Text </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>As Narrative </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Any way you want it </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>According to James, 1991, Lassie went home. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>According to James (1991), Lassie went home </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>According to James (1991), Lassie went home (p. 7). </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>In 1991, James study showed that Lassie went home. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>According to J. James (1991), Lassie went home. [ID] </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Parenthetical </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>(Last Name, 2007) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>(Last Name, 1 stInitial [When needed for ID], 2007) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>(Last Name) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>(James, 1991a) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>(James, 1991, p. 7) . </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 15. Authors </p> <ul><li>Multiple Authors </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Reference List:Write out 1 st6, et al., </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>In Text </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>1 stMention:Write out 1 st6 names et al., year </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Subsequent mentions are</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>James et al. 2007(in-text)</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>James et al. (2007)(in-text) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>(James et al., 2007)(parenthetical) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 16. Reference List:Authors </p> <ul><li>Reference List </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>James, V. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Do not add Titles or acronyms (Degrees) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Jr. or IV is part of name </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>James IV, V. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>James Jr., V. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 17. Reference List:Date </p> <ul><li>In text </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>(2007) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>When needed for ID, 2007a or 2007b etc. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Subsequent citations within 1 </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Reference List </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>2007 </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>2007a </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Journals </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>2007 If there is a volume &amp; Issue </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>2007, Mayor May 20 If there is NOT a Volume &amp; Issue </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>(n.d.) </li></ul> <p> 18. Reference List: Titles </p> <ul><li>Articles </li></ul> <ul><li>In Text </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Written out </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>()Shortened version </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Capitalize major words </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Reference List </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>No </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Capitalize only 1 stword &amp; Proper Nouns </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Journal or Book </li></ul> <ul><li>In Text</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>In Italics </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Capitalize all major words </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Reference List </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Capitalize 1 stword &amp; Proper Nouns </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Italicize </li></ul></li></ul> <p>Capitalize the 1 stword following a colon or a dash 19. APA Style ( Publication Manual ) 20. APA Style ( Publication Manual ) </p> <ul><li>p. 279#88 </li></ul> <ul><li>Electronic copy of a journal article, three to five authors, retrieved from database </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>This is the closest to our circumstance. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>We have one author, but the rest applies. </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 21. APA Style ( Publication Manual ) 22. APA Style( Citation; Proquest ) </p> <ul><li>Rosell, M.</li></ul> <p> 23. APA Style ( Publication Manual ) 24. APA Style ( Citation; Proquest ) </p> <ul><li>Rosell, M.(2001).</li></ul> <p> 25. APA Style ( Publication Manual ) 26. APA Style ( Citation; Proquest ) </p> <ul><li>Rosell, M.(2001).Getting the goods:Secret agentman.</li></ul> <p> 27. APA Style ( Publication Manual ) 28. APA Style ( Citation; Proquest ) </p> <ul><li>Rosell, M.(2001).Getting the goods:Secret agentman.The Animals Agenda , </li></ul> <p> 29. APA Style ( Publication Manual ) 30. APA Style ( Citation; Proquest ) </p> <ul><li>Rosell, M.(2001).Getting the goods:Secret agentman.The Animals Agenda ,21 (4),22-24.</li></ul> <p> 31. APA Style ( Citation; Proquest ) </p> <ul><li>Rosell, M.(2001).Getting the goods:Secret agentman.The Animals Agenda ,21 (4),22-24.Retrieved February 18, 2002 from ProQuestdatabase. </li></ul> <p>Matt Rossell (2001). Getting the goods: Secret agent man. The Animals' Agenda, 21 (4), 22-24. Retrieved September 27, 2005, from Sciences Moduledatabase. (Document ID:81303085). 32. APA:Electronic </p> <ul><li>Send me an e-mail </li></ul> <p> 33. APA Style Questions? </p> <ul><li>Complex - Dont guess - Ask for help </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Your Instructor </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>General Education Instructors </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Carol Brightman Writing Lab </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Mon 1-6 * Wed 9-12 * Fri 10-12 </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Tuesday &amp; Thursday 6:30-9 (Eugene) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Librarians </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Publication manual of the American Psychological Association </li></ul> <ul><li>(5th ed.).(2001).Washington DC:American Psychological</li></ul> <ul><li>Association. </li></ul> <p> 34. Questions</p>