lit review apa style 1202666316841695 4

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  • 1. The Literature Review APA Style
  • 2. How to approach the Lit Review
    • Look at a multiple studies dealing with a topic
      • MBM and psychotherapy
      • Addiction and childhood trauma
      • BPD and neurological trauma
      • Faithfulness as a function of age
    • Organize your paper into segments that:
      • Address significant findings
      • Differences and similarities in multiple studies
      • Significance in the general population
  • 3. How to approach the Lit Review
    • Or figure out a specific theme for your paper
    • Paper needs to:
      • Describe what the topic of interest is
      • evaluate the body of evidence you have collected
    • Not a summary
      • This would be a typical report
      • Need to process the information, compare it other information, and communicate the points of a theory
  • 4. Evaluation
    • Identify relationships
    • Contradictions
    • Gaps
    • Inconsistencies
    • Look at future steps needed to further or improve
  • 5. Whats the difference University of Washington
    • Research article
      • Empirical
      • Describing a specific or set of studies
      • Main focus on methods and results
      • Intro is like a condensed Lit Review providing rationale
    • Literature Review
      • Survey research in an area or domain
      • Main emphasis in threading the various studies and theories
      • Looking at the big picture
  • 6. A Solid Foundation
    • Understanding your audience
      • The purpose of writing is to communicate w/ readers
      • Need to clearly communicate knowledge to your audience
      • Who is the intended audience
      • Sometimes in an academic setting, it is the professor or mentor
      • Considering the need of ones audience will help your writing process
      • Consider the background of your audience
        • Needs, interests, education, and expectations
  • 7. A Solid Foundation
    • Understanding voice
      • In academia, voice expresses the writers attitude toward the topic and audience, which is grounded in ones use of language
      • Voice can breathe energy and vitality into a written work
      • Can motivate the audience to read further
      • The voice is likened to ones speaking voice and is reflective of ones personality and identity
      • Think as if you will be engaged in a formal discussion about the topic
  • 8. A Solid Foundation
    • Techniques for cultivating your voice
      • Locate and use phrases that come in early stages of writing (such as with notes, annotated bibliographies and drafts), those words that best capture your initial attitude about the topic
      • Use phrases and sentence structure that reflects your chosen speaking voice
      • Think about how your speech dialogue may translate into the written word
      • Stay connected to the original goals that the authors of your articles were trying to convey without losing your authenticity.
  • 9. A Solid Foundation
    • Writing in Third Person
      • In the third person, the writer avoids pronouns like I, we, my, and our
      • 3rd person allows for writing to appear more objective
      • Taking the individual out of the writing
      • Dealing with facts and not opinions drive the tone of the text
      • Helps author to come across as unbiased and more informed
  • 10. A Solid Foundation
    • Writing in Third Person
      • Example: I believe that it is very important for the person writing the argument to have an actual opinion about the subject matter. In my opinion, I would not trust someone who does not have an opinion about such a controversial matter
      • Example: Writers with opinions about their subject matter tend to present the issues more poignantly because they appear well informed and more involved in the subject matter
  • 11. A Solid Foundation
    • Writing in Third Person
      • Must always correlate all pronouns with the 3rd person to ensure appropriate pronoun antecedent agreement
      • Example:
        • Another writer must have his or her turn to speak now.
        • Either of the writers is allowed to submit his or her article
        • Neither of the writer is allowed to submit his or her article
      • When revising your drafts, go through it with a fine tooth comb for first person pronouns and then change them
  • 12. A Solid Foundation
    • Some tips on grammar: Applying the Comma Rules
      • Rule One: Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction connecting two main clauses. Coordinating conjunctions are: and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so , thus
        • Example: Bob arrived early at school, and he was greeted by the teacher and her staff
      • Rule Two: Use commas to set off introductory elements, such as long prepositional phrases, participial phrases, or subordinate clauses.
        • Example: In front of the classroom and behind the lectern, the professor began his lecture.
        • If the mail arrives early, please send it to me at once.
        • Exhausted, the swimmer climbed out of the pool as the winner.
  • 13. A Solid Foundation
    • Some tips on grammar: Applying the Comma Rules
      • Rule three: Use commas to divide items in a series
        • I like astronomy, physics, and biology.
        • I like jogging at the track at noon; watching surfers cascading on the diamond capped waves of Malibu; and sitting at the university park, watching the cars drive on PCH as the sun sets on a summer evening.
      • Rule four: Use commas to set off non-restrictive appositives
        • The White House, the residence of the US President, sits in the middle of Washington, DC.
  • 14. A Solid Foundation
    • Some tips on grammar: Applying the Comma Rules
      • Rule five: Use commas to set off parenthetical expressions.
        • The artist, for example, was represented by her publicist.
  • 15. A Solid Foundation
    • Crafting the Research Question
      • Qualitative Study
      • Quantitative Study